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Of what is the Universe made?. Insert new hubble photos to start the inquiry. The Universe is Made of. Matter. Energy. Nothingness -vacuum. Other. Matter and Energy are really the same thing!. E=MC 2.

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the universe is made of
The Universe is Made of

Matter

Energy

Nothingness -vacuum

Other

Matter and Energy are really the same thing!

E=MC2

slide4

In this Hubble Photograph, you can see the matter and evidence of energy. What you also see, or think you see, is large amounts of nothingness. The vacuum of space. But what about “the other?”

sadly in fifth grade we only study matter and energy we must ignore other until college

Sadly, in fifth grade we only Study Matter and Energy. We must ignore “other” until college.

Let us start with Matter.

the official definition of matter
The official definition of matter?

Definition: anything that has massand occupies space (has volume.)

Synonyms of “Matter” : material, stuff, substance

a grain of salt is made of about 12 000 000 000 000 000 000 atoms
A grain of salt is made of about 12,000,000,000,000,000,000atoms
slide18
He called it an “a tom” because in Greek it means “that which can’t be cut.”We still call this smallest piece an ATOM

But he thought of the atom as a kind of marble – a smooth round ball of whatever.

atoms have two basic parts
Atoms have two basic parts
  • Anucleus or center and
  • electron shells
the nucleus may be small or large
The nucleus may be small or large

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Nuclei are made of small particles called Protons and Neutrons

the electron shells are in an area around the nucleus
The electron shells are in an area around the nucleus

You can think of it as an orbit.

Electron shells.

Nucleus

so unlike democritus we now know that atoms can be cut into smaller and smaller pieces themselves
So, unlike Democritus, we now know that atoms can be cut into smaller and smaller pieces themselves
  • The parts of ATOMS are
  • The PROTON, which has a positive electrical charge
  • The ELECTRON, which has a negative charge
  • And the NEUTRON which has no charge.
slide26

Here is where Democritus was right. Once you cut the atom

of something

it is no longer the thing you started with.

If you started with Gold, once you break the Gold atom

it is no longer Gold!

atoms look something like this

They have a Nucleus (center)

Atoms look something like this

And little things that “orbit” the nucleus are the electrons

properties of matter
Properties of Matter

A property is like a characteristic

~~

something that describes something else

when we talk about matter
When we talk about Matter

There are three really important properties

two important properties

and

a bunch that are not as important, but still useful in classifying and identifying matter.

really important properties
Really Important Properties
  • Volume– How Much Space It Takes up
  • Mass– How Much Stuff Is in the Thing
really important property 3 state or phase of matter at room temp
Really Important Property 3 state or phase of matter at room temp.

State or phase of matter refers to:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

Gold is solid at room 68°f.

Gold boils at 5085°f

Gold is melts at 1948°f

the key question is
The key question is:

Is the material you are look at a solid, liquid or gas

AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

Every type of matter will be one of these three at room temperature approximately 68°f

important property 3 state or phase
Important Property 3 – state or phase

State or phase of matter refers to:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

I would like to find gaseous gold but couldn’t. I am not sure anyone would want gaseous gold. But it boils at 5085°f. At that temperature and correct pressure gold can become a gas.

the key question is1
The key question is:

Is the material you are look at a solid, liquid or gas

AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

Every type of matter will be one of these three at room temperature approximately 68°f

important
Important

Weight –The Pull of Gravity on the Object

  • Density – How Much Mass The Thing Has PER UNIT VOLUME
slide40

The gravitational pull of earth is defined as 1G. The moon, being 1/6th the mass of earth has only 1/6G of pull.

Weight = 120kg

Weight = 20kg

1G

1/6G

Earth

Moon – 1/6 earth

slide41

Earth pulls down at 1G so on the scale you get Weight = 120kg

Moon pulls down at 1/6G so on a scale you get Weight = 20kg

The BALANCE is different. Lets see why.

Mass = 120kg

Mass = 120kg

Moon

1G on Each side of Balance

Earth

1/6G on Each side of Balance

120

kg

120

kg

slide42

DENSITY

How much stuff can you fit in a small space

slide43

Not Dense

Dense

Not much stuff packed into can

A lot of stuff packed into can

other physical properties of matter
Color

Smell

Taste

Texture

Flexibility

Malleability

Conductivity

Reflectance

Ductility

Viscosity (if a liquid)

Boiling point

Freezing Point

Phase at Room Temperature

Other Physical Properties of Matter