Rights and Liberation Background. Civil Rights movement 60s Liberalism JFK Great Society Vietnam War Shared experiences and different historical circumstances. The War at Home.
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Rights and Liberation Background • Civil Rights movement • 60s Liberalism • JFK • Great Society • Vietnam War • Shared experiences and different historical circumstances
The War at Home • The rise of the counterculture reflected a loss of faith in the liberal reforms promoted by John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. • As faith and idealism toward liberal reforms declined, radicalism grew among specific elements of American society. Many of these late 1960s radicals came from the frustrated civil rights advocates, frustrated war protestors, college students, Hispanic youth, feminists, gays, and youth culture in general. • Radicals believed that the system itself was too corrupt for the changes needed and it was time to tear it down and rebuilt it into a more democratic, inclusive (multicultural), peace-oriented, and egalitarian system. Street riot by members of the counterculture in Berkeley, California. By the late 1960s, the counterculture had shifted away from liberal democratic reforms and toward radicalism.
Out of the South: Black Panthers • Black Power v. Civil Rights • Mostly in north and west • Younger leaders • More militant ideology • Watts Riots (1965) • Black Panthers • Seale and Newton • 10 point program (jobs, exemption from military service, end police brutality • Guns and laws • Success and failure • grew too quick; changing ideas; repression
The Student Movement • College students paid attention to the Black Panther Party. • college students were initially idealistic about changing the world. • Students were also influenced by youth culture themes that pitted the older generation’s values against the emerging values of the youth culture. • It would be the Vietnam War along with the restriction of free speech on college campuses that would galvanize the emerging student movement. Student protest buttons from the Berkeley campus of the University of California.
The Free Speech Movement • The free speech movement came out of the student movement and began in Berkeley in 1964. It involved the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). • On college campuses, an example of “institutional corruption” involved the rights of the students toward free speech. • Colleges had become over-rationalized administrative bureaucracies, with lots of formal rules and regulations imposed on students. • In loco parentis gave the administrators parental power over students. • At UC-Berkeley, the administration ruled that non-campus political literature could not be distributed on campus. • This seemed an open violation of academic ideals, so students dug in, just as the administrators did. The Free Speech movement started on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in 1964. Students were organized by the SDS, who understood that collective – not individual – actions would be more effective in changing the university’s rules.
The Student Movement • In 1962, the baby boomers were attending universities in huge, galvanizing numbers. • A college degree was now required for many middle class jobs. • Most students came from the growing middle class and had come from economically secure families. They could afford to think big. • They were aiming for something more than mere security – they were aiming for happiness and a humane social world. • Given their affluence, these students were more free to think critically about the shortcomings of the consumer society. In the colleges of the 1960s, there was a strong liberal arts tradition. Students learned about existentialism, classic literature, the Bill of Rights, and other ideas that encouraged a humanistic attitude toward life.
Chicano Movement • Chavez and UFW • Grape strike • Use of ethnic symbols • Defining Chicano • Brown Berets • High School blowouts • La Raza Unida • Chicano Park (1970) Brown Berets Chicano Park
Urbanization and Politics • Indians for All Tribes • Alcatraz Island (1969) • American Indian Movement • Wounded Knee • Yellow Power • Vietnam War • ? • SF State • Asian Community Center and International Hotel
Second Wave of Feminism • Origins • Liberating June Cleaver • JFK’s Presidential Commission • documented discrimination • Betty Friedan’s “The Feminist Mystique” • the problem without a name • Civil Rights and New Left experiences • recognizing oppression
Women’s Rights v. Women’s Lib • Women’s Rights • end legal and educational discrimination • National Organization for Women • Women’s Lib • origins in New Left and Civ. Rts. • Consciousness raising • challenged social/cultural oppression • Abortion • Barbie Dolls • Sexist Commercials
Feminism in the 70s • Rights and Lib movements blur • Roe v. Wade (1973) • Equal Rights Amendment • Weaknesses and Failures • homemakers • middle class bias • failure to integrate other races