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Fire safety and disaster management

Fire safety and disaster management

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Fire safety and disaster management

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  1. Fire safety and disaster management

  2. FIRE

  3. FIRE Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation(burning) of a fuel
  4. The Fire Triangle

    In order to understand how fire extinguishers work, you first need to know a little bit about fire.
  5. What you will learn… Types of Fires Fire Triangle Types of Extinguishers How to Use an Extinguisher Rules for Fires
  6. Types of Fires Fires Are Classified by the type FUEL they burn. The 4 Types are A B C D
  7. Class A Fires Wood Paper Plastic Rags
  8. Class B Fires Gasoline Oil Grease Paint
  9. Class C Fires Electrical Fires Office Equipment Motors Switchgear Heaters
  10. Class D Fires Metals Potassium Sodium Aluminum Magnesium
  11. Fire Triangle Fires Require Air Fuel Heat
  12. The Fire Triangle

    FUEL- any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids must vaporize before they will burn. OXYGEN- Sufficient oxygen must be present in the atmosphere surrounding the fuel for fire to burn. HEAT- Sufficient heat energy must be applied to raise the fuel to it's ignition temperature Chemical, exothermic reaction- This reaction can occur when all three of the above elements are present in the proper conditions and proportions. Fire (rapid oxidisation) is the result of this chemical reaction.
  13. Air Air is required as a catalyst Can be oxygen from the air OR From the Fuel itself
  14. Hazards of Combustion Other gasses Lack of oxygen If oxygen supply is reduced enough unconsciousness results Variety of effects from other gasses based on toxicity of each material and level of concentration
  15. Hazards of Combustion Flames Heat Smoke –fine solid particles and steam suspended in the air Gases Carbon monoxide –major cause of death in fires, lethal at low levels, binds well with hemoglobin and delivers poison to tissues
  16. Behavior of Fire Hot gasses and smoke move vertically until they reach an obstruction such as the ceiling of a room Hot gases then move laterally until they find an escape route and resume vertical movement or cool and regain original volume If confined, they will form a layer on the ceiling which will begin to thicken and push down into the room
  17. Methods of Fire Control Cool the fire -reduces the temperature of the process, reduces flame or heat source Limit oxygen available for burning -can stop combustion Remove the fuel -such as shutting off a valve or letting it be consumed under control so there is no residual fuel to burn Limit the reaction creating OH radicals
  18. Oxygen Normally 21% found in air Percent available effects rate of burning, degree of burning, as well as heat produced In limited oxygen environment incomplete burning may occur This will increase carbon monoxide and unburned fuel and smoke in the air. This will increase risk of a fast traveling flame front toward new source of oxygen: for example if someone opens a door or window.
  19. Fuel For a fire to start there must be something to Burn
  20. Heat For a Fire to Start, there must be a heat or ignition source
  21. Water (under air pressure) All Red body Dry Chemical Powder - Class of Fire: A, B, C, (E) and F Red body White band Foam - Class of Fire: A and B Blue or Red with Blue band. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - Class of Fire: A, B, (E) and F Red with Black band. Wet Chemical- Class of Fire: A and FBuff or Red with Buff band. Vaporizing Liquid- Class of Fire: A, B, C and (E) Red with Yellow Band Halon (BCF)- Do not use now illegal, environmental hazard. All Yellow

    Types of extinguishers

  22. Fire Extinguisher Safety Guidelines Always know the location of the nearest extinguisher Check on its operational status Gauge indicating proper charge No obstructions in hose
  23. Class A Used on Wood, Paper, Plastic Class A Fires
  24. Class B Used on Flammable Liquid Fires
  25. Class C Used on Electrical Fires
  26. Class D Used on Metal Fires
  27. Types of Extinguishers Type of fire extinguishers are classified by the type fires on which they may be used
  28. Fire Rules Never fight a fire if your instincts tell you not to. If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, just let the fire department do their job.
  29. Fire Rules The final rule is to always position yourself with an exit or means of escape at your back before you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire. In case the extinguisher malfunctions, or something unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly, and you don't want to become trapped. Just remember, always keep an exit at your back.
  30. Fire Safety in Buildings Be familiar with fire pull locations Be familiar with emergency procedures should a fire occur Only fight a fire if it is within your level of training and follow the “one and done” rule Keep fire guidelines posted in lab or shop near exit or on back of door
  32. Fire Doors Each lab/workshop should be equipped with a fire door that opens onto a corridor Fire doors must be kept closed Self-closers Must not be wedged open Intended to slow spread of fire and allow evacuation in event of fire
  33. Emergency Procedures Call 911 from a safe location Go to pre-determined emergency assembly area if indicated Meet fire department to provide information Do not re-enter until given permission by fire department Post these guidelines inside lab/workshop on back of door or adjacent to exit
  34. Egress – Clear Path to Exit Storage in means of egress is not permitted Furniture must not block or impede exiting or access
  35. Think This could happen to you SECURE your self from this disaster
  38. Area unprotected from fire Now the area is now protected from fire


    Object 2 Object 2 Object 1 Object 1 Fire Hydrant System, the oldest and still one of the most effective and dependable one, consists of the following components: ·Sufficiently large water reservoir ·Fire pumpsets (Main and Standby) ·Jockey pumpset ·Hydrant valves ·Fire fighting hoses with coupling ·Branch pipe with nozzles This is a semi-automatic system. A network of pipes is laid out depending upon the risk with hydrant valves placed at strategic places. The spacing/distance between yard hydrants are guided by norms viz. ·N F P A ·Tariff Advisory Committee ·O I S D Hydrants Pump house

    A sprinkler system consists of a water supply (or supplies) and one or more sprinkler installations, each installation consist of a set of installation control valves and a pipe array fitted with sprinkler heads. The sprinkler heads are fitted at specified locations at the roof or ceiling, and where necessary between racks, below shelves, inside ovens or stoves or below obstructions. A sprinkler has two functions to perform. It must first sense the heat, and must then provide an adequate distribution of water to control or extinguish the fire. Each function is performed separately and one is independent of the other except insofar as early detection makes extinction easier because the fire has not grown large. The classic use of the sprinkler is in the hot gas layer which forms beneath the ceiling of an enclosure in which a fire is developing.
  42. Spray System A special fixed pipe system connected to a reliable source of fire protection water supply and equipped with water spray nozzles for specific water discharge and distribution over the surface or area to be protected. The piping system is connected to the water supply through an automatically actuated Deluge Valve which initiates flow of water. Automatic actuation is achieved by operation of automatic detecting equipment installed along with water spray nozzles. There are two types of systems namely High Velocity Water Spray System and Medium Velocity Water Spray System. I) High Velocity Water Spray System High Velocity Water spray systems are installed to extinguish fires involving liquids with flash points of 65 deg. C (150 deg. F) or higher. It was found however that water applied in the form of the finely broken needles to create an emulsion possessed a high resistance to electric current. This equipment is now more or less standard for live oil filled electrical gear and is quite commonly installed for the protection of electrical equipment carrying voltage of 400 KV or more
  43. Transformer Fire Deluge Valve Spray line Spay nozzle
  45. Foam Foam for fire protection purposes is an aggregate of air-filled bubbles formed from aqueous solutions and is lower density than the lightest flammable liquids. It is principally used to form a coherent floating blanket on flammable and combustible liquid lighter than water and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air and cooling the fuel. It also prevents re-ignition by suppressing formation of flammable vapors. It has the property of adhering to surfaces, providing a degree of exposure protection from adjacent fires. Foam may be used as a fire prevention, control or extinguishments agent for flammable liquid tanks or processing areas. Foam solution for these hazards may be supplied by fixed piped systems or portable foam generating systems. Foam may be applied by foam discharge outlets, which allow it to fall gently on the surface of burning fuel or it may be introduced by other means. Foam may also be applied to these hazards by portable hose streams using foam nozzles, portable towers or large capacity monitor nozzles.
  47. PASSIVE Detection Alarm Fire detection systems have increased in complexity and sophistication as technology has advanced. In particular, the increased computing power now available through the development of low cost processors has enabled system designers to improve functionally through incorporating numerous features and options into the fire detection system, both in the detector head and in the control panel. However, not all installations will require the ultimate in facilities and features, and there is still a strong demand for relatively simple conventional systems. There are four elements of a fire system : a) The Detectorsb) The Control Panelc) The warning sounders and strobesd) Ancillary devices such as door closers and fan shut-down units.
  48. PASSIVE Detection Alarm
  49. Smoke & heat detector Fire is automatically detected Alarm Fire
  50. Plan your escape around your abilities. Have a telephone in your bedroom and post the local emergency number nearby in case you are trapped by smoke or fire.
  51. stop drop Stop. drop, and roll. If your clothes catch on fire: stop (don’t run), drop gently to the ground, and cover your face with your hands. Roll over and over or back and forth to put out the fire. Use cool water for 3 to 5 minutes to cool the burn. Get medical help right away. and roll over & over
  52. Fire Rules The final rule is to always position yourself with an exit or means of escape at your back before you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire. In case the extinguisher malfunctions, or something unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly, and you don't want to become trapped. Just remember, always keep an exit at your back.
  53. Fire Rules Never Fight a Fire if you don't know what is burning If you don't know what is burning, you don't know what type of extinguisher to use. Even if you have an ABC extinguisher, there may be something in the fire which is going to explode or produce highly toxic smoke.
  54. Rules for Fires Fires are very dangerous Be certain that you will not endanger yourself or others when attempting to put out a fire.
  55. Fire Rules Never Fight a fire if you don't have adequate or appropriate equipment If you don't have the correct type or large enough extinguisher, it is best not to try to fight the fire.
  56. Fire Rules Never Fight a fire if you don't have adequate or appropriate equipment If you don't have the correct type or large enough extinguisher, it is best not to try to fight the fire.
  57. How to Reinforce Fire Safety Perform daily self inspections Maintain good house keeping Review emergency guidelines Familiarize yourself with the building Know at least two exits out of the building Do not prop open fire doors Keep exit corridors and aisles clear of obstructions
  58. SAFETY… part of everyday living. It is an important consideration for everyone in everything he/she does, in the home, at work or play, on streets and highways – wherever he/she goes. Safe operating practices and procedures are vital in the drilling business because the work is hazardous, involving massive machinery, heavy tools and great physical strength. When accidents do occur, the work can be a serious peril to life and limb. Drilling personnel must know how to work safely on a rig in order to protect themselves, costly rig equipment, and the expensive hole being drilled.
  59. Everyone loses from an accident. Injuries result in pain and suffering and may leave a person disabled or handicapped for life. Even minor injuries may cause loss of time from work and lost pay. Insurance benefits are helpful, but compensation payments cannot restore a life, hand, eye or leg. Damaged machinery and equipment can usually be repaired but almost always at considerable cost, particularly if down time is taken into account. An expensive well may be lost because of the oversight of the incompetence of one person. Blowouts and fires cause losses of life and equipment and waste precious oil and gas from underground reservoirs.
  60. Health and Safety Procedures Some elements of a GOOD safety program  Management policy  Employee selection/placement  Employee orientation/training  Educational activities  Employee meetings  Inspections  Accident reporting  Safety responsibilities
  61. Recognition of Hazards Identify unsafe acts and conditions Determine the corrective actions Implement corrective actions Texas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund 2001
  62. Machines/equipment receive regular maintenance? Machines operations sufficient for safe work? Room for maintenance operations? Materials being handled adequately for work? Are tools, jigs, work fixtures stored not to interfere with work? Work area well illuminated. Ventilation adequate. PPE used ? Housekeeping satisfactory? Energy sources controlled for maintenance?
  63. Is there a Hazard?
  64. Preventative and Corrective Measures The implementation of Control Measures: 1. Administrative (through personnel, management, monitoring, limiting worker exposure, measuring performance, training and education, housekeeping and maintenance, purchasing.) Engineering (isolation of source, lockout procedure, design, process or procedural changes, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution.) 3. PPE (body protection, fall protection.)
  65. PPE Personal protective equipment should not be used as a substitute for engineering, work practice, and/or administrative controls. Personal protective equipment should be used in conjunction with these controls to provide for employee safety and health in the workplace. Personal protective equipment includes all clothing and other work accessories designed to create a barrier against workplace hazards.
  66. EYE PROTECTION Eye protection comes in different types. Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood.
  67. Disaster management
  68. Areas of Concern Activating an Early Warning System network and its close monitoring Mechanisms for integrating the scientific, technological and administrative agencies for effective disaster management Terrestrial communication links which collapse in the event of a rapid onset disaster Vulnerability of critical infrastructures (power supply, communication, water supply, transport, etc.) to disaster events
  69. Areas of Concern Funding : Primacy of relief as disaster response. Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored. Lack of integrated efforts to collect and compile data, information and local knowledge on disaster history and traditional response patterns. Need for standardised efforts in compiling and interpreting geo-spatial data, satellite imagery and early warning signals. Weak areas continue to be forecasting, modelling, risk prediction, simulation and scenario analysis, etc.
  70. Future Directions Encourage and consolidate knowledge networks Mobilise and train disaster volunteers for more effective preparedness, mitigation and response (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides, NYK, Civil Defence, Homeguards) Increased capacity building leads to faster vulnerability reduction. Learn from best practices in disaster preparedness, mitigation and disaster response
  71. Invest in Preparedness Investments in Preparedness and Prevention (Mitigation) will yield sustainable results, rather than spending money on relief after a disaster. Most disasters are predictable, especially in their seasonality and the disaster-prone areas which are vulnerable. Communities must be involved in disaster preparedness.