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Fire Safety and Fire Extinguishers

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  1. Fire Safety and Fire Extinguishers Occupational Health and Safety Program OSHA Office of Training and Education

  2. Course Description Introduces employees to the identification and control of fire hazards. Topics include Introduction. Exits/Egress. Portable Fire Extinguishers. Fire Extinguisher Practice. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  3. Introduction • Fires and explosions kill more than 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers each year. • There is a long and tragic history of workplace fires in this country caused by problems with fire exits and extinguishing systems. • Kentucky OSH and Kentucky Fire Code requires employers to provide proper exits, fire fighting equipment, and employee training to prevent fire deaths and injuries in the workplace. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  4. Exits/Egress Terms exit and egress can be used interchangeably. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  5. Exit Route A continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas). Consists of three parts: • Exit access. • Exit. • Exit discharge. Refuge Area OSHA Office of Training and Education

  6. Exit Route Exit routes must be permanent and there must be enough exits in the proper arrangement for quick escape. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  7. Exit Discharge Each exit discharge must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside that is large enough to accommodate all building occupants likely to use the exit route. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  8. Exit Doors Must Be Unlocked Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted on that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel to the exit discharge. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  9. Exit Doors Must Be Unlocked • Must be able to open from the inside at all times without keys, tools, or special knowledge. • Device such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside is permitted. • Must be free of any device or alarm that could restrict emergency use if the device or alarm fails. • May be locked from the inside only in mental, penal, or correctional facilities where there is constant supervision. Locked and blocked exit! OSHA Office of Training and Education

  10. Side-hinged Exit Door Must be used to connect any room to an exit route. A door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in the direction of exit travel if the room is designed to be occupied by more than 50 people or contains high hazard contents. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  11. Minimize Danger to Employees • Exit routes must be free and unobstructed. • Keep exit routes free of explosive or highly flammable materials. • Arrange exit routes so that employees will not have to travel toward a high hazard area, unless it is effectively shielded. • Emergency safeguards (e.g., sprinkler systems, alarm systems, fire doors, exit lighting) must be in proper working order at all times. Obstructed exit route! OSHA Office of Training and Education

  12. Exit Marking Each exit must be clearly visible and marked with an “Exit” sign. Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the door. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  13. Exit Marking If the direction of travel to the exit or exit discharge is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted along the exit access indicating direction to the nearest exit. The line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be visible at all times. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  14. Exit Marking Each doorway or passage along an exit access that could be mistaken for an exit must be marked “Not an Exit” or similar designation, or be identified by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g., closet). OSHA Office of Training and Education

  15. Emergency Action Plan • Describes actions that must be taken to ensure employee safety in emergencies. • Includes floor plans or maps which show emergency escape routes. • Tells employees what actions to take in emergency situations. • Covers reasonably expected emergencies, such as fires, explosions, toxic chemical releases, hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, and floods. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  16. Portable Fire Extinguishers The employer must mount, locate and identify fire extinguisher so workers can access them without subjecting themselves to possible injury. Blocked extinguisher! OSHA Office of Training and Education

  17. Extinguisher Classification Letter classification given an extinguisher to designate the class or classes of fire on which it will be effective. Class A – ordinary combustibles (wood, cloth, paper) Class B – flammable liquids, gases, greases Class C – energized electrical equipment Class D – combustible metals Class K – combustible cooking media Combustible Flammable Electrical Ordinary C B A D Equipment Liquids Combustibles Metals OSHA Office of Training and Education

  18. Maintaining Portable Fire Extinguishers • Must maintain in a fully charged and operable condition. • Must keep in their designated places at all times except during use. • Must conduct an annual maintenance check. • Must record the annual maintenance date and retain this record for one year after the last entry or the life of the shell, whichever is less. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  19. Maintaining Portable Fire Extinguishers Must receive visual monthly inspection. Inspection must be documented- On the extinguisher tag, or Separate report available to OSHA upon request. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  20. Portable Fire ExtinguisherTraining and Education Where portable fire extinguishers have been provided for employee use in the workplace, employees must be provided with an educational program on the: • General principles of fire extinguisher use. • Hazards of incipient (beginning) stage fire fighting. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  21. Fire Protection Summary • There must be enough exits in the proper arrangement for quick escape. • Exit routes must be marked, lighted, free of obstructions, and locks must not be used to impede or prevent escape. • An emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan must be in place. • Fire extinguisher classes and numerical ratings help a user understand its capabilities. • Fire extinguishers must be inspected, maintained and employees must be trained in how to use them. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  22. Portable Fire Extinguishers Identification and Use OSHA Office of Training and Education

  23. The Fire Triangle Fire safety and extinguishing is based upon the principle of keeping fuel sources and ignition sources separate. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  24. The Fire Triangle Three things must be present at the same time to produce fire: Enough OXYGENto sustain combustion. EnoughHEATto reach ignition temperature. SomeFUEL or combustible material. Together, they produce theCHEMICAL REACTIONthat is fire. Take away any of these things and the fire will be extinguished! OSHA Office of Training and Education

  25. Fuel Classifications Fires are classified according to the type of fuel that is burning. If you use the wrong type of fire extinguisher on the wrong class of fire, you might make matters worse. Its very important to understand the five different fire (fuel) classifications. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  26. Fuel Classifications Class A:Wood, paper, cloth, trash, plastics—solids that are not metals. Class B:Flammable liquids—gasoline, oil, grease, acetone. Includes flammable gases. Class C:Electrical—energized electrical equipment. As long as it’s “plugged in.” Class D:Metals—potassium, sodium, aluminum, magnesium. Requires Metal-X, foam, and other special extinguishing agents. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  27. Fuel Classifications Class K:Kitchens and Food Preparation Areas—Cooking Fuels, Cooking Materials, Fats, Cooking Oil and preparations. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  28. Fuel Classifications Most fire extinguishers will have a pictograph label telling you which types of fire the extinguisher is designed to fight. For example, a simple water extinguisher might have a label like this… …which means it should only be used on Class A fires. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  29. Types of Fire Extinguishers Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to fight different classes of fire. The 3 most common types of fire extinguishers are: • Water, • Carbon Dioxide, • Dry Chemical. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  30. Types of Fire Extinguishers Water (APW) Fire Extinguishers Large silver fire extinguishers that stand about 2 feet tall and weigh about 25 pounds when full. APW stands for “Air-Pressurized Water.” Filled with ordinary tap water and pressurized air, they are essentially large squirt guns. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  31. Types of Fire Extinguishers Water (APW) Fire Extinguishers APW’s extinguish fire by taking away the “heat” element of the Fire Triangle. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  32. Types of Fire Extinguishers Water (APW) Fire Extinguishers APW’s are designed for Class A fires only: Wood, paper, cloth. Using water on a flammable liquid fire could cause the fire to spread. Using water on an electrical fire increases the risk of electrocution. If you have no choice but to use an APW on an electrical fire, make sure the electrical equipment is un-plugged or de-energized. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  33. Types of Fire Extinguishers Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers The pressure in a CO2 extinguisher is so great, bits of dry ice may shoot out of the horn.! CO2 cylinders are red. They range in size from 5 lbs to 100 lbs or larger. On larger sizes, the horn will be at the end of a long, flexible hose. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  34. Types of Fire Extinguishers Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers CO2’s are designed for Class B and C (Flammable Liquids and Electrical Sources)fires only! CO2s will frequently be found in mechanical rooms, kitchens, and flammable liquid storage areas. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  35. Types of Fire Extinguishers Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers Carbon dioxide is a non-flammable gas that takes away the oxygen element of the fire triangle. Without oxygen, there is no fire. CO2 is very cold as it comes out of the extinguisher, so it cools the fuel as well. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  36. Types of Fire Extinguishers Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers A CO2 may be ineffective in extinguishing a Class A fire because it may not be able to displace enough oxygen to successfully put the fire out. Class A materials may also smolder and re-ignite. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  37. Types of Fire Extinguishers Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers Dry chemical extinguishers put out fire by coating the fuel with a thin layer of dust. This separates the fuel from the oxygen in the air. The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction of fire. These extinguishers are very effective at putting out fire. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  38. Types of Fire Extinguishers Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers ABC extinguishers are red. They range in size from 5 to 30 pounds and larger. “ABC” fire extinguishers are filled with a fine yellow powder. The greatest portion of this powder is composed of monoammonium phosphate. The extinguishers are pressurized with nitrogen. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  39. Types of Fire Extinguishers Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers Dry chemical extinguishers come in a variety of types… • ABC (can be used on Class A, B, or C fires) • BC (designed for use on Class B and C fires) • DC (for “Dry Chemical”) OSHA Office of Training and Education

  40. Types of Fire Extinguishers Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers It is extremely important to identify which types of dry chemical extinguishers are located in your area! An “ABC” extinguisher will have a label like this, indicating it may be used on Class A, B and C fires. You don’t want to mistakenly use a “BC” extinguisher on a ClassAfire thinking that it was an “ABC” extinguisher. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  41. Types of Fire Extinguishers Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers Dry chemical extinguishers with powder designed for Class B and C fires (“BC” extinguishers) may be located in places such as commercial kitchens and areas with flammable liquids. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  42. Dry Chemical (ABC) Fire Extinguishers Numerical Ratings Numerical rating given to Class A and B extinguishers which indicate how large a fire an experienced person can put out with the extinguisher. Ratings (Examples). Class A: 1-A, 2-A, . . . 40-A. Class B: 1-B, 2-B, . . . 640-B. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  43. Types of Fire Extinguishers-K Class Fires involving cooking media (grease, fats, and oils in commercial cooking appliances are unlike most other fires because these oils have a wide range of auto-ignition temperatures. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  44. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher It’s easy to remember how to use a fire extinguisher if you remember the acronymPASS: • Pull • Aim • Squeeze • Sweep OSHA Office of Training and Education

  45. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher Pull the pin… This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  46. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher Aim at the base of the fire… Hit the fuel. If you aim at the flames... … the extinguishing agent will fly right through and do no good. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  47. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher Squeeze the top handle… This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  48. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher Sweep from side to side… .. until the fire is completely out. Start using the extinguisher from a safe distance away, then slowly move forward. Once the fire is out, keep an eye on the area in case it re-ignites. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  49. Rules for Fighting Fires Fires can be very dangerous and you should always be certain that you will not endanger yourself or others when attempting to put out a fire. For this reason, when a fire is discovered… • Assist any person in immediate danger to safety, if it can be accomplished without risk to yourself. • Call 911 or activate the building fire alarm. The fire alarm will notify the fire department and other building occupants and shut off the air handling system to prevent the spread of smoke. OSHA Office of Training and Education

  50. Rules for Fighting Fires . . .before deciding to fight the fire, keep these things in mind: • Know what is burning.If you don’t know what’s burning, you won’t know what kind of extinguisher to use. • Even if you have an ABC fire extinguisher, there may be something in the fire that is going to explode or produce toxic fumes. Chances are you will know what’s burning, or at least have a pretty good idea, but if you don’t, let the fire department handle it. OSHA Office of Training and Education