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Title Page-pg. 43. Chapter 11 Deformation of the Crust 3 pictures 3 keyword 3 colors. Which type of fault motion best matches the general pattern of crustal movement at California’s San Andreas Fault? Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 4. In: pg. 44.

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title page pg 43
Title Page-pg. 43

Chapter 11 Deformation of the Crust

  • 3 pictures
  • 3 keyword
  • 3 colors
slide2

Which type of fault motion best matches the general pattern of crustal movement at California’s San Andreas Fault?

  • Diagram 1
  • Diagram 2
  • Diagram 3
  • Diagram 4
in pg 44
In: pg. 44
  • Deformation means to change shape, to go away from the normal

What are 3 examples of deformation of the Earth’s crust?

stress
Stress
  • Amount of force per area put on an object
stress1
Stress

Stress-The squeezing, stretching and twisting of the Earth’s crust.

isostasy
Isostasy
  • Isostasy-The balance between the downward pull of gravity on the lithosphere and the upward push of the asthenosphere.
  • If the mass of the crust increases, it sinks.
    • New mountains, glaciers, sediment deposition
  • If the mass of the crust decreases, it rises.
    • Erosion of mountains, melting of glaciers
slide8

The weight of the crust pushes down on the asthenosphere.

  • As the mountain erodes away, the crust gets lighter and rises. The deposition of sediments causes the crust to sink.
three types of stress
Three types of stress:

Compression

Tension

Shear

stress2
Stress

Types of stress:

  • Compression-Pushing together
  • Tension-Pulling apart
  • Shear stress- sliding in opposite directions
folding
FOLDING
  • Rock layers bend due to stress
  • Assume most rocks are laid down horizontal
folds
Folds

Fold-bend in rock layers.

  • Happen below the earth’s surface where it is warmer

Anticline-folds upwards

Syncline-folds downwards

faults
FAULTS
  • The line along which rocks break and move
faults1
Faults
  • Hanging wall-The rock above the fault
  • Foot wall-The rock below the fault
normal faults
Normal Faults
  • Caused by tension forces
  • Hanging wall moves down
reverse faults
Reverse Faults
  • Caused by compression forces
  • Hanging wall moves up
strike slip faults
Strike-slip Faults
  • Opposing forces cause rock to break
  • Move horizontally
types of faults
Types of Faults
  • Normal Fault-hanging wall move down, footwall moves up.
    • Caused by tension stress
slide27

Reverse Fault-hanging wall moves up, footwall move down.

    • Caused by compression stress
  • Strike Slip Fault-rock on either side of the fault slides horizontally past each other in opposite directions.
    • Caused by shearing stress
slide29

Follow-Up Questions

Does the shape of the marshmallow lengthen during compression or tension stress?

What happens to the shape of the marshmallow during shear stress?

Describe the differences between the three types of stresses that can occur to rocks as the lithosphere moves.

slide30

Answers

1.Tension stress.

2.Shear stress pulls the marshmallow in more than one direction.

3.Compression stress squeezes and shortens rocks, tension stress pulls rocks apart, and shear stress distorts the shapes of rocks.

how mountains form
How Mountains Form

Mountain Range-A group of mountains that are close together and formed together.

example: Cascade Range, Great Smokey Mountains, Rocky Mountains

slide32

Mountain System-A group of mountain ranges that are close to each other.

  • Example: The Appalachian Mountain system.
thru 2
Thru 2

Pg. 46

Ch. 11 3 Column Vocab

  • Deformation
  • Isostasy
  • Stress
  • Compression
  • Tension
  • Shear stress
  • Fold

Pg. 47

8. Anticline

9. Syncline

10. Fault

11. Footwall

12. Hanging wall

13. Mountain range

14. Mountain system

**Not all words are in glossary, some are italicized in the chapter or in notes.

slide36
Out
  • Less than five million years ago, the range that we now know as the Sierra Nevada began to rise. Through a combination of uplift of the Sierran block and down-dropping of the area to the east, the Sierra rose upward. The entire Sierra Nevada can be thought of as an enormous tilted fault block mountain with a long, gentle slope westward to California's Central Valley and steep eastern slope towards Nevada.
  • When did the Sierra Nevadas start to uplift?
  • Where are the Sierra Nevadas located?
  • What type of mountains are the Sierra Nevada Mountains?
slide38
In

Use your notes to answer these questions.

  • _______ is the balance between the crust and the asthenosphere.
  • If a mountain is eroded away, will the crust move up or down?
  • What are the 3 types of stress?
  • _______ stress results in rock being pushed together.
  • What are the 2 types of folds?
  • A _______ fault is caused by compression stress.
  • In a _______fault, the rock on either side of the fault slides horizontally in opposite directions.
  • The Rocky Mountains are an example of a mountain_______.
  • What are the 4 types of mountains?
  • Which type of mountain forms from compression stress?
thru 1 p g 49
Thru 1: Pg. 49

Movie: Shaping the Planet