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Germany. History of Germany by Location: Beginning at its Darkest Hour. Berlin:. When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his rivals, led Germany, and committed suicide.

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History of Germany by Location:

Beginning at its Darkest Hour


When Hitler took power in 1933 he set up permanent residence in Berlin. Berlin became the city where he consolidated his power, wiped out his rivals, led Germany, and committed suicide.

90% of Berlin was destroyed during WWII, yet the city remains littered with remnants of Hitler's Third Reich:

Hitler planned to completely rebuild Berlin. The FehrbellinerPlatz is a example of Nazi construction that not only was completed during WWII times but is still in use today.

The Berlin Dom was the scene of many Nazi parades and is still in existence today.




Reason for Construction:

West versus East: Democracy versus Communism.

Why Berlin?

Centered in Soviet Union occupation zone


West: set up a capitalist society resulting in rapid growth of their economy.

East: a communist society was established resulting in a dragging economy and restricted individual freedoms.

1950s-people in East Germany began to emigrate to West Germany

1960s-East Germany was rapidly losing labor force and population.

Desperate to keep its citizens, East Germany built the Berlin Wall to prevent citizens from crossing the border.


Size and Scope:

*Wall stretched over 100 miles

*Ran through center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin-cutting off West Berlin from the Rest of Germany.

*Evolved from a barbed wire fence to a permanent structure made from concrete blocks, topped with barbed wire.

*reached nearly 12 feet high and 4 ft wide with smooth pipe running across the bop to hinder peoples attempts to scale the wall.

*1989-wall included a 300 foot no-mans-land, an additional inner wall, soldiers patrolling with dogs, a raked ground that showed footprints, anti-vehicle trenches, electric fences, massive light systems, watch towers, bunkers, and minefields.

Fall of the Berlin Wall:

November 9, 1989- East German government allowed for the boarder to be opened. leading to the destruction of the wall

October 3, 1990: East and West Germany reunited into a single German State



  • *1914- Hitler joins the German Army during WWI

  • *1920- Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZIS)

  • *1923- Hitler ‘s rally at Munich beer hall

  • Bavarian capital of Munich: Serves as the birthplace of the Nazi Party.

  • Munich remained, throughout the Holocaust, the capital of the Nazi movement and included:

  • Headquarter buildings

  • museums housing artworks approved by Hitler

  • Nazi shrines where swearing-in ceremonies for new SS members


*March 1933- Nazi government established first official concentration camp at Dachau

*Established for political prisoners, many served a specific time and were released

*Was not a extermination camp like Auschwitz

*held a small number of Jews; majority were political prisoners of war

*35,000-43,000 prisoners died at Dachau and sub camps

*liberated by US Army on April 29, 1945


Nuremberg: Trials and Legacy

Picture: 22 Nazi officials in court, defendants seen on right of photo.

World Challenge:

How to seek legal justice for crimes of the holocaust?

The IMT was created as a reaction to the Holocaust.

Otober 1945- IMT formally indicated that the Holocaust was “a crime against humanity.”

The trials at Nuremberg set precedents in international law, documentation of historical record keeping to aid in the search for justice.

Overview 1871 present

German Empire to Federal Republic

Government of Germany

Overview 1871-Present

  • 1871-1918: Germans united, form German Empire under Otto von Bismark.

  • 1918-1933: Weimar Republic established, after WWI defeat.

  • 1933-1945: Third Reich, totalitarian state under Hitler and Nazi Party.

  • 1945: Fall of Nazi regime, occupation by Allied forces (US, France, United Kingdom, USSR)

  • 1949-1989: Germany divided

    • May 23, Federal Republic of Germany established in West (US, Fr, UK zones).

    • October 7, German Democratic Republic (USSR zone).

  • 1990-Present: Germany Reunified as federal republic.

German government today
German Government Today

  • Type: Federal Republic (federation of states, republican form of government)

    • 16 states

  • Capital: Berlin

  • Constitution: “Basic Law,” adopted May 23, 1949 (again in 1990 by unified Germany).

  • European Union: one of founding members, joined at formation in 1993.

Branches of government
Branches of Government

  • Five organs outlined by Constitution:

    • Federal President

    • Federal Government, including Chancellor

    • Bundestag (Parliament)

    • Bundesrat (represents the 16 states, or Länder)

    • Federal Constitutional Court

Executive branch
Executive Branch

  • Federal President:

    • largely ceremonial, five-year terms , elected by Federal Convention.

    • Currently: Acting-President Jens Boehrnsen (elected president, Koheler resigned May 31, 2010).

    • President’s residence: Bellevue Palace (Berlin).

  • Chancellor:

    • Head of Federal Government, issues directives, four year terms, nominated by president and elected by parliament, commands military.

    • Since 2005: Angela Merkel of Christian Democrats Party.

      German Chancellery Building (Berlin)

Legislative branch
Legislative Branch

  • Bundestag (Parliament):

    • Elected by German people, legislative center, elects chancellor, determines federal budget, in charge of deploying military.

    • Meets in Reichstag (Berlin).

  • Bundesrat:

    • Represents the 16 states (Länder) in the legislative process.

    • Meets in Bundesrat building, Berlin.

Judicial branch
Judicial Branch

  • Federal Constitutional Court

    • Determines constitutionality of all legislation

    • Meets in Karlsruhe, separate from other governmental branches.

German military
German Military

  • Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr):

    • Army

    • Navy

    • Air Force

    • Joint Support Services

    • Central Medical Services

  • Decisions regarding deployment rests with Parliament (Bundestag).

  • German Chancellor is the commander of deployed forces.

  • Germany spends 1.5% of GDP on military (compare US, 4.06%).

Germany s current economy
Germany’s Current Economy

  • Recently fell into a recession in 2008 - the deepest since World War II - but is steadily recovering thanks to manufacturing orders and exports, and a relatively steady consumer demand.

  • However the Central Intelligence Agency predicts that an anticipated bump in unemployment, and a tight credit market could cloud Germany’s predicted recovery growth for 2010.

Comparison of recessions
Comparison of Recessions

  • Germany

    • Unemployment rate: 8.2% in 2009

    • Population below poverty line: 11% in 2001

    • Public debt: 77.2% of *GDP in 2009

    • Inflation rate: 0% in 2009

    • Debt-external: $5.208 trillion (USD) in June 2009

  • United States

    • Unemployment rate: 9.3% in 2009

    • Population below the poverty line: 12% in 2004

    • Public Debt: 52.9% of *GDP in 2009

    • Inflation rate: -0.7% in 2009

    • Debt-external : $13.45 trillion (USD) in June 2009

*Gross domestic product: measure of a country’s overall economic output

German currency


Current conversion rate

$1 = € 0.80

German Currency

Euro and Cent are used as both singular and plural when following a numeral. However, when talking about individual coins, the plurals Euros and Cents are used

Exchanging us dollars for euros
Exchanging US Dollars for Euros

  • Taking more than $100 cash or converting money to Euros before hand is NOT recommended

  • Using a card

    • Prepaid visa card or debt card

      • EF tours offers a prepaid visa card

        • Can load and check funds online 24 hours a day

        • Still incurs fees for conversions and ATM withdrawals

      • Debt Card

        • Notify the bank before leaving and be sure to get contact information incase of any mishaps while overseas.

    • Avoid using a card to pay for individual transactions, instead use cash withdrawn from an ATM to prevent stolen card numbers.

      • ATM exchange rates are usually lower than exchange rates at hotels and foreign currency exchange booths

Using an atm overseas
Using an ATM Overseas

  • Be sure to plan for conversion fees and transaction fees, and keep them in mind when making withdrawals

  • Banks may charge anywhere from 1%-3% of the total amount withdrawn or a flat rate between $1- $2.50 per withdrawal

  • Loading fees or adjustment charges, used by banks to convert the currency of the bank account into the local currency may cause the exchange rate to appear high.

    • Due to these fees it’s best to make as few withdrawals as possible.

  • The lowest ATM fees are available from credit unions, where ATM withdrawals cost as little as $1 per transaction

  • If an ATM doesn’t return the card, call your bank immediately to disable the ATM card.

  • Events in discovery of indo european language
    Events in Discovery of Indo-European Language

    • 1786 Sir William Jones

      • Amateur linguist

      • Exiled to India

      • Became familiar with Sanskrit

      • 1786 presented paper with resemblance of Sanskrit to Euro language, brought attention of linguists in Europe (Royal Asiatic Society)

    • 1822 Jacob Grimm mitbrüder Wilhelm

      • Proposed explanation to similarities

      • “Grimm’s Law”

        • Parent language bh dh gh b d g p t k

        • Germanic languages

          (English, Dutch, Swedish,

          German) b d g p t k f ɵ x (h)

          no change or other changes

    • 1875 Karl Verner

      • Exceptions to Grimm’s Law

        • p, t, k  b, d, g (instead of f, ɵ, x (h)) after unstressed vowel in IE


    Indo-European Languages



    West East North

    Latin Oscan Umbrian


    Portuguese Spanish French Italian Catalan



    Modern Standard German



    Danish Dutch

    Icelandic Norwegian


    Old English

    Old Frisian Old Franconian Old Saxon

    Dutch Flemish Afrikaans


    Modern Low German

    Middle English

    Modern English

    English german cognates






















    English-German Cognates







    Fuß *















    August Schleicher (1821-1868) developed the Staummbaumtheorie (family tree theory) which explains the way words can be traced from one language to another or within families using Jacob Grimm’s Law on sound shifts.

    *Less obvious cognates; does not closely resemble the English word but are still cognates.

    **Part of the Consonant Sound Shift (further information below).

    ***Words in English borrowed from German.

    A few pronunciation tips
    A Few Pronunciation Tips

    *Pronounce every letter

    • ei vs. ie

      • drei (dry) die (dee)

    • ch (back of the throat)

      • Ich spreche kein Deutsch.

    • ä (eh)

      • Wo ist nächste kirche?

        • Not nackste.

    • ö (hollow oo)

      • Können Sie das bitte aufschreiben?

    • ü (ooh)

      • Drücken

    • r (often in back of the throat)

    • w (v)

      • Was sind Sievon Beruf?

    • ß (ss)

      • Ich heiße Sara.

    • au (ow)

      • Ausfahrt


    • Forming the “ok” hand gesture (making a circle with your index finger and thumb) is an obscene gesture.

    • If you whistle at a performance, it is often a expression of displeasure.

    • When you form a fist by putting your thumb in between you index and middle finger, it is usually considered an obscene gesture.

    • At the end of a performance or presentation, instead of applauding in approval, Germans rappel their knuckles on the tabletop.


    • To signify no, you must wave your hand back and forth with your palm facing upward.

    • By facing your palm down and making a scratching motion with your fingers, you would be gesturing for someone to come.


    • Using your index figure to point to your own head is considered an insult to another person.

    • Instead of crossing your fingers for luck, such as in America, Germans place their thumb in between their index and middle finger (not allowing the tip of the thumb to show; remember that is an obscene gesture!!!).

    • Germans wear their wedding rings on their right hands, instead of their left hands.

    • Punctuality is very important in Germany! A few minutes is acceptable to be late, but no more!

    • When it comes to giving gifts you must unwrap flowers in the entrance hall of where you are. Also never give 13 or an even amount of flowers.

    Taboos and communication
    Taboos and Communication

    • Germans are often quite direct, but still polite. There is often little or no context surrounding the communication.

    • Honesty is appreciated and expected, which is why Germans tend to tell it like it is.

    • Germans tend to guard their personal space, therefore arms length distance is normal.

    • Although this is changing in the younger population, it is traditional to address someone by a title or surname, unless you are a family member or friend, then you use the first name of a person.


    • In Germany, when men meet men it is not much different then in the United States. They share a firm and brief handshake, while keeping eye contact.

    • When it is two woman greeting they also shake hands and keep eye contact, if they are first meeting. If they are family or good friends kissing one another on both cheeks is likely.

    • When it is a woman and a man meeting a regular handshake will suffice, if they are not familiar acquaintances. If they are familiar with one another a light hug will do or a kiss on one or both cheeks.



    • Holidays and Traditions

    • Neujahr (New Year)

    • Karneval (Mardi Gras)

    • Ostern (Easter)

    • Reunification Day

    • Oktoberfest

    • Christmas

    • Birthdays

    • Meal Times:

      In Germany and in a German home there a definite eating hours. Everyone eats all of their meals with the family, and you should never be late because it is considered very rude.

      *Lunch time

      -Twelve is lunchtime for almost everyone in Germany. People all over Germany leave work at twelve to go home and eatwith their families. Almost all shops and businesses close at around 12 and theydon't reopen until about 1 or 2 pm.

      -Lunch is the bigger hot meal of the day (similar to dinner in America). After lunch it's the quiet hour.

      -This is the time that you can't play your radio very loud, and it's polite to hold off calling someone at this time.

      -German students usually use this time to do their homework, to study or to take a nap.


      -In Germany dinner is a small light meal (similar to the American Lunch), and is eaten at different times in different families.

      -Dinner is something small like a baguette and other breads, with cheeses, (Jarlsberg, cream cheese, -and some French cheeses)ham, smoked sausages, and a salad.


    German Culture


    Spatzle (Egg Noodles)

    Kartoffelsalat (Potato Salad)

    Sachertorte (Chocolate-Apricot Cake)

    Gulaschsuppe (Goulash Soup)

    Zwiebelkuchen (Onion Pie)

    Bretzeln (Pretzels)

    Manners for Eating:

    You should always have both hands on the table or they should at least be visible.

    Your plate should always be virtually clean after you eat.

    If you leave something on your plate it is thought to mean that you didn't like the food.

    When you are finished with your meal, as a signal to everyone, the fork and knife are placedtogether, tips toward the middle of the plate andhandles toward your right hand.


    The House

    Of the

    Wannsee Conference

    January 20, 1942

    “Fifteen men joined together to plan the implementation of the "Final Solution" against the Jews.”

    “The plan was to evacuate Jews from west to east. Supposedly, Jews were to be sent to the East to work in forced labor, though it was understood that "in the course of which action a great part will undoubtedly be eliminated by natural causes."

    “Within only an hour or hour and a half, the implementation of the Final Solution had been planned and the death sentence of millions passed down. “


    Current Berlin


    *Berlin is the capital and the biggest

    city of Germany.

    * It has a population of about 3.5 million


    The Heart of Berlin

    Checkpoint charlie

    Checkpoint Charlie was a checkpoint on the Berlin Wall that was used to enter West Berlin.

    Checkpoint Charlie was also the most famous checkpoint.

    The checkpoints on the Berlin wall got their names from the American Alphabet. The other checkpoints were called Alpha and Bravo.

    The checkpoint is located in Friedrichstadt neighborhood in the heart of Berlin.

    The main function of the wall was to register and inform members of the Western military forces before they entered East Berlin.

    Checkpoint Charlie was subject to many movies and appeared in many spy novels in the Cold War Era.

    In the early years that the checkpoint was erected, it was the sight of a few stand offs between the Americans and the Soviets.

    Checkpoint Charlie was removed I June of 1990, when the German reunification was complete.

    Checkpoint Charlie

    Today at checkpoint charlie
    TODAY at Checkpoint Charlie was used to enter West Berlin.

    • Bricks trace the path of the Berlin Wall.

    • There is a replica of the Checkpoint Charlie booth and a sign over the original site.

    Neuschwanstein castle
    Neuschwanstein was used to enter West Berlin.Castle

    Facts about the castle
    Facts about the Castle was used to enter West Berlin.

    • Building started in 1869, ended 1892.

    • Built as a retreat for King Ludwig II of Bavaria.

    • Visitors can reach 6,000/day.

    • No photography/video allowed inside.

    • Castle contains modern elements (heat, running water, etc.)

    • Located about 125km from Munich.

    • Inspiration for the Disney Sleeping Beauty Castle.

    • Guided tours lead visitors through the rooms.


    *Built by Kind Ludwig II.

    *Construction began in 1869

    Removal from Power:

    *Kings hallucinations

    *Bavarian law

    *mysterious death

    *Rooms completed by Kings death-14.

    Outline and features
    Outline and Features was used to enter West Berlin.

    a.  Staircase Tower  e. Hall  i.  Lower Courtyard b. Knights' House f. Entrance Hall  j.  Gateway Building c. Square Tower  g.Palask.  Staircase Tower d.  Connecting Building h.  Upper Courtyard l  Bower

    Through the castle
    Through the Castle was used to enter West Berlin.

    • Throne Hall

      • Doesn’t contain a throne.

      • Designed after Byzantine churches.

      • “Hall of the Holy Grail”

    Through the castle1
    Through the Castle was used to enter West Berlin.

    • Singer’s Hall

      • Inspired by another hall used for a singer’s contest.

      • Room stands as tribute to medieval knights and legends.

    Through the castle2

    Study was used to enter West Berlin.

    Through the Castle

    Dining Hall

    The black forest

    Schwarzwald was used to enter West Berlin.

    Location:Baden-Wurttemberg in

    southwestern Germany

    Elevation: 1,493 meters = 4898.24 ft

    Which is the highest peak: Feldberg

    Area: 12,000 km² = 4,600 mi²

    The Black Forest

    Feldberg is the highest mountain in the Black Forest, and in Germany outside the Alps.

    • Mostly pines and firs compose the Black forest

    • Regions of the Black Forest has been damaged due to mass logging, which has reduced the forest to only a fraction of its original size.

    • A storm in 1999, Lothar, down hundred of trees and left some of the high peaks and scenic hills bare with only shrubs and young firs

    Known for more than fairytale inspiration
    Known for more than was used to enter West Berlin. fairytale inspiration…

    • Home of the cuckoo clock

      • Clocks have been made in the region since the early eighteenth century and much of their development occurred there.

    Known for more than fairytale inspiration1
    Known for more than fairytale inspiration was used to enter West Berlin.…

    • Black Forest Cake ('SchwarzwälderKirschtorte') which literally means “Black Forest cherry torte.”

      • consists of several layers of chocolate cake, with whipped cream and cherries between each layer. Then the cake is decorated with additional whipped cream, maraschino cherries, and chocolate shavings.

    • Bollenhut: the traditional hats with enormous pompoms.

      • They are particularly distinctive among Germany's traditional costumes. The hat is famous all over the world even though it was originally worn in only three parishes of the Black Forest region and on special occasions only


    Munich Night Life (Day 2,3, and 4) was used to enter West Berlin.


    This famous pub is open to locals and tourist friendly! Its unique charm comes from the Bavarian music and the handful of regulars who gather at the bar. Beer and Schmankerl (roast pork with trimmings) complete the set up. In the summertime 'real' locals make for its wonderful courtyard, while the Festsaal room hosts a Bavarian evening with music every night

    Cost for Admission: EUR 4.50

    Cost for Main Meals: EUR 10-15

    Cost for Small Meals: EUR 4.45

    Cost of a Liter of Beer: EUR 5.70

    Atomic CafeA small nightclub right in the city centre (mainly frequented by students). Comfy sofas next to the  dance floor make for a cozy and unpretentious atmosphere for tourists.

    Fast Food Theater

    This restaurant does not serve fast food at all, but you had better eat within the 90 minutes between admission and the start of the performance in order not to miss any detail of the exciting program! Acts include: stand-up comedy and improvisation theatre. Beware, because they are known to put tourists on the spot for an unforgettable night!


    What is the Glockenspiel? (Day 3) was used to enter West Berlin.

    It is a gigantic clock located in Marienplatz at the heart of Munich. It consists of 43 bells and 32 life-size figures. Every day at 11 a.m. (as well as 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. in summer) it chimes and re-enacts two stories from the 16th century to the amusement of mass crowds. The whole show lasts somewhere between 12 and 15 minutes long depending on which tune it plays that day. At the very end a very small golden bird at the top of the Glockenspiel chirps three times, marking the end of the spectacle.

    Oberammergau was used to enter West Berlin.

    Nuremburg was used to enter West Berlin.

    Nuremburg was used to enter West Berlin.

    Nuremburg Virtual Tour

    Nuremburg Virtual Tour 2

    Works cited
    Works Cited was used to enter West Berlin.

    • A View On Cities. 2010. Web. 21 June 2010.

    • Amondson, Birge. "Neuschwanstein - Guide to Neuschwanstein, Germany." Germany Travel - Germany Travel and Vacations Guide - Travel Information Germany. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "BBC News - Germany Country Profile." BBC NEWS | News Front Page. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "Berlin Mitte District." Berlin Life | Travel Guide | Berlin Apartments Hotels Restaurants Bars Pubs and Shops Berlin | Germany. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "Berlin." Third Reich in Ruins. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "Berlin Wall." United States History. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • Box, Checking This. "Germany -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • Culture Crossing. Web. 20 June 2010.

    • "Dachau Concentration Camp." Third Reich in Ruins. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "German-English Cognate Sound Shifts - Consonants." Learn German – German

    • Language Lessons - Speak German - Deutsch. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <>.

    • "Munich." Third Reich in Ruins. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "Nuremburg Germany, Judgment at Nuremburg, Nuremburg Wall, Nuremburg Train Station." Online Travel Guides of Travel Destinations - Las Vegas, Caribbean, Hawaii and Machu Picchu. Web. 21 June 2010. <>.

    • "Oberammergau 2010 Passion Play Vacations - Globus® Faith." Religious Tours & Faith Travel Packages - Globus® Faith, Official Site. Web. 21 June 2010. <>.

    • Passion Play Oberammergau, Oberammergau Passion Play, Oberammergau 2010, Oberammergau Play, Oberammergau Passion Play 2010. Web. 21 June 2010. <>.

    • Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Wannsee Conference." 20th Century History. Web. 25 June 2010. <>.

    • "Sightseeing." StadtNarnberg - Startseite. Web. 21 June 2010. <>.

    • Taylor, Ted. "Events in the Discovery of Indo-European Language." History of the

    •      English Language. Colorado State University-Pueblo, Pueblo. 20 Jan. 2010. Lecture.