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: Germany

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  1. : Germany Why did the Nazis rise to power? How much do you know? • Make a timeline from 1918 to 1945 • Put on it everything you know about the topic • People, dates, events, numbers • (if you can’t remember a date- just put where you think it should go...)

  2. Unit IIID: Germany Why did the Nazis rise to power? Because: • Treaty of Versailles angered Germans • Weimar Germany = weak • Nazis = well organised • Wall St Crash – Depression • Politicians let them in

  3. Why was Weimar Germany weak? Give an example for each so you can Explain these weaknesses: • Treaty of Versailles • Weimar constitution • Weimar democracy • Putsches • Ruhr Crisis & hyperinflation

  4. Why was Weimar Germany weak? • Q: Treaty of Versailles • Reparations = • _______ = Alsace, Polish corridor • _______ = blamed for WWI • Demilitarisation = • Rhineland = • No union with ______

  5. Why was Weimar Germany weak? • A: Treaty of Versailles • Reparations = £6.6 billion • Land lost = Alsace, Polish corridor • War guilt = blamed for WWI • Demilitarisation = no tanks, planes, subs; army only 100,000 • Rhineland = occupied by French • No union with Austria

  6. Why was Weimar Germany weak? 2. Q: Weimar constitution weak • Constitution = • Proportional Representation = • (Article 48)President = • Many parties ________ Weimar Germany

  7. Why was Weimar Germany weak? 2. A: Weimar constitution weak • Constitution = laws for a country • Proportional Representation = many small parties, couldn’t agree • (Article 48)President = too much power • Many parties opposed Weimar Germany

  8. Why was Weimar Germany weak? 3. Q: Democracy was new • Kaiser= • Left wing = socialists, against Weimar because wanted … • Right wing = Nazis, Freikorps, against Weimar because wanted … • Social Democratic Party leader stuck in middle =

  9. Why was Weimar Germany weak? 3. A: Democracy was new • Kaiser= people used to control • Left wing = socialists, against Weimar because wanted equality for all • Right wing = Nazis, Freikorps, against Weimar because wanted return to 1 strong leader • Ebert (Social Democratic Party) leader= stuck in middle

  10. Why was Weimar Germany weak? • Q: Putsches • Putsch = • Weimar name = because not safe for government in ____ • Kiel mutiny 1918 = • Spartacists 1919 • Ebert used ________ to stop- left wing hated him for this! • Kapp 1920 • Ebert used ______ to stop Kapp’s friekorps. Right wing hated him for this! • Munich (Beerhall) 1923 =

  11. Why was Weimar Germany weak? • Putsches • Putsch = violent takeover of government • Weimar name = because not safe for government in Berlin • Kiel mutiny 1918 = German Navy refused Kaiser’s orders to go to war • Spartacists 1919 • Ebert used Freikorps to stop- left wing hated him for this! • Kapp 1920 • Ebert used left wing to stop Kapp’s friekorps. Right wing hated him for this! • Munich (Beerhall) 1923 = Nazis tried to overthrow Bavarian State

  12. Why was Weimar Germany weak? 5. Q: Ruhr crisis and Hyperinflation • 1922 Germans couldn’t pay… • So French - • German workers – went… • Government- printed • Caused hyperinflation = • Eg 1 loaf = 1 mark, • then _______ marks by 1923

  13. Why was Weimar Germany weak? 5. A: Ruhr crisis and Hyperinflation • 1922 Germans couldn’t pay reparations • French - invaded to take them • German workers – on strike • Government- printed money to pay them • Caused hyperinflation = money loses all value • Eg 1 loaf = 1 mark, then 22 million marks

  14. Why was Weimar Germany weak? Try again: Give an example for each so you can Explain these weaknesses: • Treaty of Versailles • Weimar constitution • Weimar democracy • Putsches • Ruhr Crisis & hyperinflation

  15. Why did the Nazis take power? Give an example so you can Explain each reason: • Weimar Germany weak • Good leadership • Nazis popular ideas • Nazis well organised • Wall St Crash & Depression • Politicians gave Nazis power • Hitler’s trickery

  16. Why did the Nazis take power? • Q: Was Weimar Germany weak 1923-29? YES • Democracy, putsches, Versailles, constitution, hyperinflation etc • 1923-29 ______ struggled • Weimar culture- many right wingers hated … • Recovery based on ____ from ____ NO • _________ = leader 1923-29 • Stopped hyperinflation with … • Stopped French with ______ treaty = guaranteed … • 1926 joined ____________ • Reduced reparations – ____ plan, ____ plan • ______ recovered

  17. Why did the Nazis take power? • A: Was Weimar Germany weak 1924-29? YES • Democracy, putsches, Versailles, constitution, hyperinflation etc • 1923-29 farmers struggled • Weimar culture- many right wingers hated ‘cabaret’, art etc. • Recovery based on loans from USA NO • Stresemann = Chancellor – 1923 Foreign Minister from 1924-29 • Stopped hyperinflation with Rentenmark • Stopped French with Locarno treaty = guaranteed Western borders • 1926 joined League of Nations • Reduced reparations – Dawes plan, Young plan • Economy recovered

  18. Why did the Nazis take power? 2. Q: Were the Nazi leaders good? YES • Hitler – • 1924 when he was ______ - party collapsed • After 1923 aim = win power through _____ • Goebbels - excellent… • Goering - famous … • ____ - violent & dangerous SA leader NO • Munich putsch failed 1923

  19. Why did the Nazis take power? 2. Were the Nazi leaders good? YES • Hitler – great speaker- dominated party • 1924 when he was in prison - party collapsed • After 1923 aim = win power through votes • Goebbels - excellent propaganda • Goering - famous war ace • Rohm - violent & dangerous SA leader NO • Munich putsch failed 1923

  20. Why did the Nazis take power? 3. Q: Were the Nazis well organised? YES • SA = Sturm Abteilung = • SA easily recognised = • _________ = Volkischer Beobachter • Nuremburg rallies = • __________= Gauleiters

  21. Why did the Nazis take power? 3. A: Were the Nazis well organised? YES • SA = Sturm Abteilung = beat up opponents • SA easily recognised = brown shirts, uniforms • Newspaper = Volkischer Beobachter • Nuremburg rallies = mass demonstrations of support • Many regional supporters = Gauleiters

  22. Why did the Nazis take power? 4. Q: Were the Nazis ideas popular? YES • Against Treaty of … • Against _____ Germany • Anti-semitic = blamed… • Anti-Communist = feared them … • Mein Kampf = … • Nationalist = loved strong … NO • Only 4 MPs in Reichstag (Parliament) 1925

  23. Why did the Nazis take power? 4. A: Were the Nazis ideas popular? YES • Against Treaty of Versailles • Against Weimar Germany • Anti-semitic = blamed Jews for everything • Anti-Communist = feared them taking wealth • Mein Kampf = Hitler’s book ‘My Struggle’ • Nationalist = loved strong Germany NO • Only 4 MPs in Reichstag (Parliament) 1925

  24. Why did the Nazis take power? 5. Q: Did Wall St Crash & Depression help them? YES • __________ = US banks and economy collapsed • US wanted ____ back from Germany • So German economy collapsed • (also rest of world)= … • Nazi votes increased dramatically – • Nazis = _____ party in Reichstag NO • Nazis to power 1933 = 4 years later

  25. Why did the Nazis take power? 5. A: Did Wall St Crash & Depression help them? YES • 1929 Wall St Crash = US banks and economy collapsed • US wanted loans back from Germany • So German economy collapsed • (also rest of world)= Depression • Nazi votes increased dramatically – 1933 43% • Nazis = largest party in Reichstag NO • Nazis to power 1933 = 4 years later

  26. Why did the Nazis take power? 6. Q: Did politicians give them power? YES • Nazis never won _______ of vote –43 % 1933 • Hitler beaten by ________ – President 1930 • 2 elections ____, Nazi vote went down a little 1930 –33 Weimar leaders failed to govern : • Bruning had to use Hindenburg to _______ • Von ____ & Von Schliecher also • _______ & _______ planned ‘to control’ Hitler • ____ offered him job ______ (+ 1 other ministry)

  27. Why did the Nazis take power? 6. A: Did politicians give them power? YES • Won 37% in 1932 elections = largest party • 1933 won 43% - (not majority of vote) • Hitler beaten by Hindenburg – President 1930 • 2 elections 1932, Nazi vote went down a little • 1930 –33 Weimar leaders failed to govern : • Bruning had to use Hindenburg to make laws • Von Papen & Von Schliecher • Hindenburg & Von Papen planned ‘to control’ Hitler • Jan 1933 offered him job Chancellor (+ 1 other ministry)

  28. Why did the Nazis take power? 7. Q: Did Hitler outwit the politicians? YES • Called Election for ____ 19__ • ________ = excuse to destroy Communists • Rigged election = used … • ___% vote • Persuaded ______ parties to support them • ______ Act passed • Made Hitler ______= total power to make laws

  29. Why did the Nazis take power? 7. A: Did Hitler outwit the politicians? YES • Called General Election for March 1933 • Reichstag fire = excuse to destroy Communists • Rigged election = used SA violence • 47% vote • Persuaded right wing parties to support them • Enabling Act passed • Made Hitler dictator = total power to make laws

  30. Why did the Nazis take power? Give an example so you can Explain each reason: • Weimar Germany weak • Good leadership • Nazis popular ideas • Nazis well organised • Wall St Crash & Depression • Politicians gave Nazis power • Hitler’s trickery 1933

  31. How well did the Nazis control Germany? Give an example so you can Explain each reason: • Dictatorship • Removed opposition • Totalitarian state • Gave Germans good life • Controlled youth • Blamed Jews • Propaganda • But was Resistance

  32. How well did the Nazis control Germany? • Q: Dictatorship • Used Reichstag fire 27th Feb 1933 to persuade other parties that Communists were a threat • Got majority in Reichstag elections by banning communists 28th Feb 1933 • Then ‘forcing’ other parties to join them • Passed Enabling Act March 1933 • Dictatorial Powers= Hitler could make all laws on his own

  33. How well did the Nazis control Germany? • Join with Nazis • Enabling • Banning communists • laws • Reichstag fire A: Dictatorship • Used __________ to persuade other parties that Communists were a threat • Got majority in Reichstag elections by … • Then ‘forcing’ other parties to … • Passed ______Act • = Hitler could make all ____ on his own

  34. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 2. Q: Removed opposition • banned __________ • Merged ____ with Nazis • ______ Trade Unions • Gleischaultung = _________ = judges, teachers, police etc had to be Nazis • SA – ___________ = killed Rohm and Nazi opposition in ____ • Army...

  35. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 2. A: Removed opposition • banned Communists • Merged parties with Nazis • Banned Trade Unions • Gleischaultung = co-ordination = judges, teachers, police, State Governments etc had to be Nazis • SA – Night of the Long Knives = killed Rohm and Nazi opposition in 1934 • Army oath – promised to support him only

  36. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 3. Q: Totalitarian state • totalitarian = … • _______ = secret police • Informers = • ____ = filled with Nazi judges • __ set up ________ ____ = prisons for anyone against Nazis

  37. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 3. A: Totalitarian state • totalitarian = police state, total control over your life • Gestapo = secret police • Informers = spied on everyone • Courts = filled with Nazi judges • SS set up concentration camps e.g. Dachau = prisons for anyone against Nazis

  38. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 4. A: Controlled by giving good life • Gave jobs – ______ in huge works programme eg … • Scrapped ________ – no reparations, left League, re-built army • 1936 re-entered _______ • 1938 Joined with ______ • ____took over Czechoslovakia • ______ – ‘Strength through Joy’ • Volkswagen – ________

  39. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 4. A: Controlled by giving good life • Gave jobs – 3 million in huge works programme eg autobahns & army • Scrapped Treaty of Versailles – no reparations, left League, re-built army • 1936 re-entered Rhineland • 1938 Joined with Austria • 1938 took over Czechoslovakia • Holidays – ‘Strength through Joy’ • Volkswagen – ‘People’s Car’

  40. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 5. Q: Controlled youth • __________ = brainwashing • Schools – taught … • Eg Biology – Jews shown as … • Eg History – … • Youth organisations = … • Taught boys = • Taught girls =

  41. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 5. A: Controlled youth • propaganda = brainwashing • Schools – taught Nazi ideas • Eg Biology – Jews shown as sub-human • Eg History – German History rewritten • Youth organisations = Hitler Youth, League of German Maidens = 1939 compulsory • Taught boys = soldiers • Taught girls = mothers

  42. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 6. Q: Blamed Jews for problems • ________ = anti-Jew racism • _____ = perfect blonde German • ____ seen as - sub-human • 1933 boycott = • 1935 Nuremburg laws = • 1938 _________ = Jewish property destroyed • 19__ ‘Final solution’ = mass murder of Jews

  43. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 6. A: Blamed Jews for problems • Anti-semitism = anti-Jew racism • Aryan = perfect blonde German • Jews seen as - sub-human • 1933 boycott = avoid Jewish shops • 1935 Nuremburg laws = banned inter-marriage, citizenship • Nov 1938 Kristallnacht = Jewish property destroyed • 1942 ‘Final solution’ = mass murder of Jews

  44. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 7. Q: Propaganda • Propaganda = • Minister in charge = • Used – • Radio – given out cheap, but… • _______ = cut out anything against Nazis • 1936 ______ – demonstrated how great Germany was to world

  45. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 7. A: Propaganda • Propaganda = brainwashing • Minister in charge = Goebbels • Used - posters, films • Radio – given out cheap, but only tunable to Nazi radio • Censorship = cut out anything against Nazis • 1936 Olympics – demonstrated how great Germany was to world

  46. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 8. Q: But some resistance from: • ________ – Red Orchestra group printed leaflets • _______ Churches- Pastor Neimoller spoke out – sent to prison • ________ – Cardinal Galen spoke against killing handicapped • Youth- ______ university students printed leaflets • Passive resistance= • Army- July 1944 =

  47. How well did the Nazis control Germany? 8. A: But some resistance from: • Communists – Red Orchestra group printed leaflets • Protestant Churches- Pastor Neimoller spoke out – sent to prison • Catholic bishops – Cardinal Galen spoke against killing handicapped • Youth- White Rose university students printed leaflets • Passive resistance- anti-Nazi jokes popular • Army- July 1944 bomb plot nearly killed Hitler

  48. How well did the Nazis control Germany? Give an example so you can Explain each reason: • Dictatorship • Removed opposition • Totalitarian state • Gave Germans good life • Controlled youth • Blamed Jews • Propaganda • But some Resistance