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Fats in the Diet. Daily Question: “Name 2 animal sources of fats and 2 plant sources of fats.”. What do we really know about the food we eat?. Video: “ InGREEDients ” Trailer. Functions of Fat . Supplies Energy Carries Vitamins A, D, E and K through the body

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Fats in the Diet


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    1. Fats in the Diet Daily Question: “Name 2 animal sources of fats and 2 plant sources of fats.”

    2. What do we really know about the food we eat? Video: “InGREEDients” Trailer

    3. Functions of Fat • Supplies Energy • Carries Vitamins A, D, E and K through the body • Provides a reserve store of energy • Promotes healthy skin • Promotes normal cell growth • Acts like a “cushion”and heat regulator to protect your heart, liver and other vital organs • It helps you feel full longer • Adds flavor to food

    4. The Basics on Fats • Fats are themost concentrated source of food energy • There are 9 calories in every gram of fat • Fats that are liquid at room temperature are called oils. • (Examples: vegetable oil, canola oil, olive oil, etc.) • Fats that are firm at room temperature are called solids. • (Examples: lard, butter, shortening, etc.)

    5. In a 2,000 calorie diet… • No more than 30% of a person’s total calories should come from fat sources.

    6. Types of Fatty Acids • Saturated • Monounsaturated • Polyunsaturated

    7. Fats and Cholesterol • All fats include all 3 kinds of fatty acids, but in varying amounts. • Each type of fat has a different effect on cholesterol levels

    8. What is Cholesterol? • Cholesterol is NOT a type of fat. • Cholesterol: a compound found in most body tissuesand cell membranes, the body creates adequate levels of cholesterol without absorption from food, high concentrations in the blood from animal fats in the diet have detrimental health effects • Adults manufacture all the cholesterol they need, mostly in the liver. • Cholesterol is unnecessary in the diet

    9. Cholesterol In Foods • Because all animals make cholesterol, if you eat any animal product, including meat, poultry and fish, you will be consuming some “extra” cholesterol. • Other foods high in cholesterol are: • Egg Yolks • Liver / Organ Meats • Some Shellfish • Cholesterol can NOT be found in plant sources!

    10. Saturated Fatty Acids • Raise the level of Bad Cholesterol in the bloodstream • Food sources: meat, poultry skin, whole-milk dairy products, and the tropical oils (coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil)

    11. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids • Appear to lower bad cholesterol and help raise levels of good cholesterol. • Food sources: olives, olive oil, avocados, peanuts, peanut oil and canola oil.

    12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids • Fats that lower cholesterol levels. • Food sources: many vegetable oils, such as corn oil, soybean oil and safflower oil.

    13. Trans Fats Daily Question: “What have you heard about trans fats?”

    14. Identifying Types of Fats • Fats that are solid at room temperature are made up mainly of saturated fatty acids. • Fats that are liquid at room temperature are made up mainly of unsaturated fatty acids.

    15. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    16. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    17. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    18. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    19. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    20. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    21. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    22. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    23. Identify the type of fats in the foods shown... Saturated Fats – animal sources Monounsaturated Fats – plant oils Polyunsaturated Fats – seed oils Also, is cholesterol likely to be included in this food item?

    24. Hydrogenation Definition of a Trans Fat (Hydrogenated Oils): Man made, factory generated fats generated through “hydrogenation” a process of infusing hydrogen into oils to create a fat that is solid at room temperature. • The process in which missing hydrogen atoms are added to an unsaturated fat to make it firmer in texture. • This forms a new type of fatty acid called trans fat. • Trans fat have many of the same properties as saturated fats.

    25. Why Trans Fats So Bad? • Trans Fats quadruples the rate of plaque build up in arteries compared to other fats. • They increase bad cholesterol and lower good cholesterol. • Unlike other fats, NO amount of trans fat is considered healthy. Video: Bad Fats Brothers

    26. What Foods are Trans Fats Found In? Margarine and vegetable based shortenings (any vegetable based fat should be liquid at room temperature, if it is solid its ben hydrogenated) • Commercially-prepared baked goods and snack foods: • Cookies, crackers, cakes, muffins, pie crusts, pizza dough and some bread, doughnuts, French fries, fried chicken, chicken nuggets and hard taco shells, Potato, corn and tortilla chips, microwave popcorn • Solid Fats: • Stick margarine, and semi-solid vegetable shortening • Pre-mixed products: • cake mix, pancake mix, and chocolate drink mix

    27. What to Look For… • Avoid trans fats, hydrogenated oil and partially hydrogenated oil. • Even labels that say “0 Trans Fat” could have PARTIALLY hydrogenated oils in them. • Margarine should be be the soft-tub versions but check the nutritional labels as well • When eating out, check in advance if the restaurant has a “no trans fat” policy, if not, skip the fried foods, biscuits and baked goods. • Avoid fast food, most states do not have labeling regulations for fast food restaurants. “cholesterol-free” may be a slogan but this means they did not use saturated fats, they may have used trans fats. NBC LEARN: Trans Fats Banned in California

    28. What foods SHOULD you eat? Are all Fats Bad for You? NO! Try to replace Saturated Fats and Trans Fats with Poly and Mono Unsaturated Fat Alternatives! • Olive, canola, flaxseed, sesame and vegetable oils • Avocados • Nuts and Almonds • Salmon and other fish Good Fats Sisters

    29. Rubber Band Ball Toss Name a suggestion you can give someone else from what you’ve learned about different types of fats and fatty foods in our diet.

    30. Applying what we know here in our school... Daily Question: “It is estimated that 1/3 Iowans are obese. Do you believe this is true of our school’s population? What correlation do you believe there is between the fats Americans consume and the large number obese people in the American population?

    31. Article Review Groups: • Article #1: • Zach Steve Jamison Sydney • Matt. B Nate Matt D Dalton • Article #2: • Ty Kaylie Trey • Breanna Grant Dana

    32. Proteins Daily Question: “Name one animal source of protein and one plant source of protein.” A Note Taking Guide has been uploaded to the class website, download the word doc and use it to help you take notes today.

    33. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks • Protein: • An energy-yielding nutrient composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms There are an infinite number of types of proteins, in our bodies there are over 30,000 that we know of!

    34. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks There are an infinite number of types of proteins, in our bodies there are over 30,000 that we know of! • Much like words are spelled by rearranging, adding and taking away letters, proteins are built by rearranging, adding and taking away amino acids. • Amino Acids: • Building blocks of protein molecules, there are 20 different amino acids which can build an infinite number of different proteins

    35. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks Amino Acids: Building blocks of protein molecules, there are 20 different amino acids which can build an infinite number of different proteins • Non-essential Amino Acids: • 11 amino acids which your body can synthesize (create from other amino acids in diet) within the body and do not necessarily need to be consumed as a part of a person’s diet • Essential Amino Acids: • 9 amino acids which your body is unable to make and must be consumed as part of a person’s diet

    36. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks If Proteins are built like words are spelled, what is the process of changing proteins from one “word” to another? • Denaturation: • The changing of the shape and properties of proteins through heat, acids, bases and alcohol • Once a protein has been denatured, it can not be reversed. • Example: Once you’ve cooked an egg (denatured the proteins to take on new chemical properties) can you UN-Cook the egg back to a liquid state? • Other Examples: tenderizing meat through marinating in an acidic dressings, breaking of building salt bonds through acids and bases.

    37. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks Digestion and Transportation of Proteins: • Acids in the stomach denature proteins • Enzymes in the stomach break large proteins into smaller proteins (shorter amino acid chains or “words”) • Enzymes in the small intestine break these smaller proteins into the 20 individual amino acids • Individual amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream • The bloodstream carries amino acids to body cells in need of them

    38. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks Functions of Proteins in the Body: Proteins are involved in virtually all cell functions. Some proteins are involved in structural support, while others are involved in bodily movement, or in defense against germs. • Provide Energy • Build and Maintain Tissues • Make Important Compounds • Regulate Mineral and Fluid Balance • Maintain Acid-Base Balance • Transport Vital Substances

    39. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks Functions of Proteins in the Body: • Provide Energy • Calories, 4 calories/gram • Build and Maintain Tissues • form the structure of muscles, organs, skin, blood, hair, nails, and every other body part. • Make Important Compounds • Hormones, Enzymes • Antibodies are proteins that defend the body against infection and disease.

    40. Proteins The Body’s Building Blocks Functions of Proteins in the Body: 4. Regulate Mineral and Fluid Balance • Proteins carry minerals, sodium and potassium from one side of cell walls to the other • These minerals and other proteins control flow of water through cell membrane 5. Maintain Acid-Base Balance • maintenance of the correct level of acidity of a blood fluid 6. Transport Vital Substances • Hemoglobin is one type of transport protein present in red blood cells; it carries oxygen from the lungs to all tissues and transports carbon dioxide back to the lungs for excretion from the body.

    41. Proteins Daily Question: “What are 4 functions of proteins in the body?. (there are 6 total)”

    42. Food Sources of Proteins • Where do we get proteins from? • Animal sources • Plant sources • What factors influence what protein rich foods we consume? • Cost • Availability • Heath concerns • Food preferences • Religious/personal beliefs • Environmental factors

    43. Types of Proteins: • Complete Proteins: Proteins which include all of the essential amino acids humans need are present in these proteins. • Proteins from animal sources and soybeans (but not other plant sources) are examples of complete proteins • Incomplete Proteins: Proteins which do not provide all of the essential amino acids • Complementary Proteins: Two or more incomplete proteins that can be combined to provide all the essential amino acids are • Certain combinations of vegetable proteins, such as wheat and peanuts in a peanut butter sandwich, allow each vegetable protein to make up for the amino acids missing in the other protein. The combination yields a complete protein.

    44. Types of Complementary Proteins: • Complementary Proteins: Two or more incomplete proteins that can be combined to provide all the essential amino acids are • Legumes: dried beans, dried peas, lentils, peanuts and soy products. • Nuts, seeds, and grain: barley, oats, corn, pasta, rice, whole grain bread, almonds, cashews, walnuts, pecans, sesame seeds and sunflower seeds.

    45. Types of Complementary Proteins: Complementary Proteins: Two or more incomplete proteins that can be combined to provide all the essential amino acids are People from all over the world combine complementary proteins. For example, Mexicans often serve corn tortillas with refried beans (grain plus legumes).

    46. Types of Complementary Proteins: Complementary Proteins: Two or more incomplete proteins that can be combined to provide all the essential amino acids are People in the Middle East combine sesame seeds and chickpeas (seeds plus legumes) to make a dip called hummus.

    47. Getting the Protein We Need: • Problem Solving: Melinda had peanut butter on toasted white bread with a glass of juice for breakfast. For lunch she had meatless chili with kidney beans, crackers and a soda. Are her protein sources complete or incomplete? What would you suggest Melinda have for dinner?

    48. Animal Sources of Protein: • What are sources of animal proteins? • Beef, pork, lamb, poultry, dairy and fish. • Americans each an average of 200lbs of animal protein every year. • This number has dramatically increased over the past 100 years. Why might that be? • Fast-food chains • Large feed-lot style of production • Subsidized cost of livestock products • Pre-made products versus home preparation of foods

    49. Our Protein Sources Impact Our Eco Footprint: • Meat and dairy products are the most resource-intensive and the least fuel-efficient food we have. • Large quantities of energy are required to cultivate, harvest, and ship animal feed; house, transport and slaughter animals; process and package their meat; and refrigerate it until it’s cooked. • A single serve of meat is estimated to create five kilograms of greenhouse gases. • It takes 1350 liters of water to produce a kilogram of wheat but it takes 16,000 liters of water to produce a kilogram of beef.

    50. Our Protein Sources Impact Our Eco Footprint: