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FIRE HOSE. OBJECTIVE. Without reference, identify basic concepts of fire hose, appliances, hose tools, hose rolls and finishes as well as general care and maintenance with an overall minimum 70% accuracy. Fire Hose.

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    1. FIRE HOSE

    2. OBJECTIVE • Without reference, identify basic concepts of fire hose, appliances, hose tools, hose rolls and finishes as well as general care and maintenance with an overall minimum 70% accuracy.

    3. Fire Hose • Identifies a type of flexible tube used by firefighters to carry water under pressure from the source of supply to a point where it is discharged • Fire hose is the most used item in the fire service

    4. Fire Hose • Fire hose is manufactured in different configurations: • Single jacket • Double jacket • Rubber single jacket • Hard rubber noncollapsing types

    5. Fire Hose Sizes • Each hose is designed for a specific purpose • Diameter of fire hose refers to the dimensions of the inside of the hose • Fire hose is most commonly cut and coupled into lengths of 50 or 100 feet • Intake hose is used to connect a fire department pumper or a portable pump to a near-by water source

    6. Fire Hose Sizes • Two groups of intake hose: • Soft sleeve – transfer water from a pressurized source • Hard suction – used primarily to draft water from an open water source

    7. NFPA STANDARDS • NFPA 1961, Standard on Fire Hose • Lists specifications for fire hose • NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections • Lists specifications for fire hose couplings and screw threads

    8. NFPA STANDARDS • NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus • Requires pumpers to carry: • 15 feet of large soft sleeve hose or 20 feet of hard suction hose • 1200 feet of 2 ½ inch or larger supply hose • 400 feet of 1 ½ , 1 ¾, or 2 inch attack hose

    9. Causes and Prevention of Fire Hose Damage • A tool that is subjected to many sources of damage • Most important factor is the care that is given after fires, in storage, and on the apparatus • Fire Hose can not endure: • Mechanical injury • Heat • Mildew • Mold • Chemical contacts

    10. Mechanical Damage Includes: • Worn places • Rips • Abrasions on coverings • Crushed or damaged couplings • Cracked inner linings

    11. Recommended Prevention Practices • Avoid laying or pulling hose over rough, sharp edges or objects • Use hose ramps or bridges to protect hose from vehicles running over it • Open and close nozzles, valves, and hydrants slowly to prevent water hammer

    12. Recommended Prevention Practices • Change position of bends in hose when reloading hose on apparatus • Provide chaffing blocks to prevent abrasion to hose when it vibrates near the pumper • Avoid excessive pump pressure on hoselines

    13. Thermal Damage • Damage resulting of hose exposed to excessive heat or contact with fire • The hose may char, melt, or weaken the fabric covering and dry the rubber lining

    14. To Prevent Thermal Damage • Firefighters should: • Protect hose from exposure to excessive heat or fire when possible • Do not allow hose to remain in any heated area after it is dry • Use moderate temperature for drying. A current of warm air is much better than hot air • Keep the outside of woven jacket fire hose dry

    15. To Prevent Thermal Damage • Firefighters should also: • Run water through hose that has not been used for some time to prolong its life • Avoid laying fire hose on hot pavement to dry • Prevent hose from coming in contact with, or being in close proximity to, vehicle exhaust systems • Use hose bed covers on apparatus to shield the hose from the sun

    16. Freezing Temperatures • Hose can be damaged by freezing temperatures • Hose, wet or dry, should not be subjected to freezing conditions for a prolonged period of time

    17. Organic Damage • Mold and mildew may occur on woven jacket hose when moisture remains on the outer surface • Mold and mildew causes decay • Rubber jacket hose is not subject to mold and mildew damage

    18. Preventing Organic Damage • To prevent organic damage to fire hose, firefighters should: • Remove all wet woven jacket hose from the apparatus after a fire and replace it with dry hose • Remove, inspect, sweep, and reload woven jacket hose if it has not been unloaded from the apparatus during a period of 30 days • Exercise woven jacket hose every 30 days and run water through it every 90 days to prevent drying and cracking of the rubber lining • Some woven jacket fire hose has been chemically treated to resist mildew and mold but such treatment is not always 100 percent effective

    19. Chemical Damage • Chemicals and chemical vapors will damage the rubber lining and often cause the lining and jacket to separate • Hose exposed to petroleum products, paints, acids, or alkalis may be weakened to the point of bursting

    20. Preventing Chemical Damage • To prevent chemical damage to fire hose clean as soon as possible, some recommended practices are: • Scrub hose thoroughly and brush all traces of acid contacts with a solution of baking soda and water. Baking soda neutralizes acids • Remove hose periodically from the apparatus, wash it with plain water, and dry it thoroughly • Test hose properly if there is the least suspicion of damage • Avoid laying hose in the gutter or next to the curb where vehicles have been parked because they can drop oil from their mechanical components and acid from their batteries • Dispose of hose properly if it has been exposed to hazardous materials and can not be decontaminated

    21. General Care and Maintenance of Fire Hose • If properly cared for, fire hose has a long life span

    22. Washing Hose • Clear water may be used on: • Hard rubber booster hose • Hard suction hose • Rubber jacket collapsible hose • Although mild soap may be used, appearance is important

    23. Washing Woven Jacket Hose • Most woven jacket hose requires a little more care than previously mentioned • Brush dirt from it • If the dirt can not be removed by brushing • Wash and scrub with clear water • If exposed to oil: • Wash with mild soap or detergent • Rinse thoroughly

    24. Washing Hose • If commercial hose washing machine is not available, scrub brushes or brooms can be used • Hose washing machines are a very important appliance in the care and maintenance of fire hose • Most common types wash almost any size hose up to 3 inches • A cabinet type machine that washes, rinses and drains fire hose is designed for use in the fires station

    25. Drying Hose • Methods used depend on the type of hose • The following hose can be placed back on the apparatus while wet with no ill effects: • Hard rubber booster hose • Hard suction hose • Rubber jacket collapsible hose

    26. Drying Hose • Woven jacket hose requires thorough during before being reloaded on the apparatus • Hose should be dried in accordance with local procedures and manufacturer’s recommendations

    27. Storing Hose • After cleaning hose should be rolled and stored in suitable racks • Hose racks should be located in a clean, well ventilated room in or close to the apparatus room • Racks can be freestanding on the floor or mounted permanently on the wall • Mobile racks can be used to store hose or move from storage areas to the apparatus for loading

    28. Fire Hose Couplings • Materials used for fire hose couplings are generally alloys in varied percentages of brass, aluminum, or magnesium • These alloys make the coupling durable and easy to attach to the hose

    29. Types of Fire Hose Couplings • Most common are: • Threaded • Storz • Other types include: • Quarter turn • Oilfield rocker lug • Snap

    30. Types of Fire Hose Couplings • Drop-forged are stronger than extruded couplings • Cast couplings are the weakest and are rarely used on modern fire hose

    31. Threaded Couplings • Three piece • Five piece • Five piece are reducing couplings • Used on hose of different sizes can be connected without using adapter fittings

    32. Threaded Couplings • Three piece fire hose couplings are also used for intake hose couplings • The shank (AKA- tailpiece, bowl or shell) serves as the point of attachment to the hose

    33. Threaded Couplings • Male side can be distinguished from the female side noting the lugs • Only male side has lugs on the shank • Female couplings has lugs on the swivel • Each threaded coupling is manufactured with lugs to aid in tightening and loosening connections

    34. Threaded Couplings • Connections may be made by hand or with spanners • There are three types of lugs: • Pin – not commonly ordered with new fire hose due to possibility of snag • Rocker- most purchased today, normally found with either two or three on each side • Recessed – normally found on booster hose

    35. Higbee Cut • Special type of thread design • The cut is at the beginning thread • Provides positive connection between first threads of opposing couplings • Tends to eliminate cross threading

    36. Storz-type Couplings • Referred to as sexless couplings • No distinct male or female components • Designed to be connected and disconnected with only one-third of a turn

    37. Care of Fire Hose Couplings • Male threads are exposed when not connected and subject to damage • Female threads are not exposed, but the swivel is subject to bending damage • Connected couplings when connected are subject to less danger of damage

    38. Rules for Care of Couplings • Avoid dropping or dragging couplings • Do not permit vehicles to run over fire hose • Examine couplings when hose is washed and dried • Remove the gasket and twist the swivel on warm soapy water

    39. Rules for Care of Couplings • Clean threads to remove tar, dirt, gravel, and oil ( with suitable brush) • Inspect gasket, and replace if cracked or creased • Hose washing machines will not clean hose couplings sufficiently

    40. Swivel Gasket and Expansion Ring Gasket • The swivel gasket and expansion ring gasket are used with fire hose couplings • The swivel gasket is used to make connection watertight when connected • The expansion ring gasket is used at the end of the hose where it is expanded into the shank of the coupling • These gaskets are not interchangeable • Inspect the gasket by simply pinching between the thumb and index finger • The gasket should return to normal shape

    41. Fire Hose Appliances and Hose Tools • Various devices are used with fire hose, other than hose couplings and nozzles • These devices are grouped into two categories, hose appliances and hose tools

    42. Hose Appliances • A hose appliance is any piece of hardware used in conjunction with delivering water

    43. Valves • The flow of water is controlled by use of various valves in hoselines at hydrants, and at pumpers, they include: • Ball valves – used in pumper discharges and gated wyes • Gate valves – used to control the flow from a hydrant • Butterfly valves – used on large pump intakes • Clapper valves – used in Siamese appliances

    44. Valve Devices • Increase of decrease the number of hoselines operating at the fire ground • Wye appliances – divides a hose line into two or more lines, most common found have one 2 ½ inch inlet and two 1 ½ inch outlets

    45. Valve Devices • Also include: • Siamese appliances – consist of two or more hoselines brought into one hose line of device, typical siamese appliance has two or three female connections coming into the appliance and one male discharge • May be equipped with or without a clapper valve • Commonly used to overcome the problems caused by friction loss in hose lays

    46. Valve Devices • Also include: • Water thief appliances – variation of the wye appliance • Most common consist of one 2 ½ inch inlet, one 2 ½ inch and two 1 ½ inch discharge outlets • Intended for use on a 2 ½ inch or larger hoseline, usually near the nozzle

    47. Large Diameter Hose Appliances • Depending on the locale and the brand of appliance, these devices are sometimes called: • Portable hydrants • Manifolds • Phantom pumpers • Large diameter distributors • Generally they have one 4 or 5 inch inlet and tow or more smaller outlets

    48. Hydrant Valves • Used when a hose lay is made from the water supply source to the fire scene • Allows the supply line to be connected and the hydrant to be charged before the arrival of another pumper • The supply pumper may connect to the hydrant and pressure may be boosted in the original supply line without having to interrupt the flow of water

    49. Fittings • Hardware accessories are called fittings • Available for connecting hoses of different sizes and threads • An adapter is a fitting for connecting hose couplings with dissimilar threads but with the same inside diameter

    50. Fittings • The double male and double female adapters are probably used more than any other special hose appliance • Used when couplings are of the same sex • A reducer is used to extend a larger hoseline by connecting a smaller one to the end • Commonly found on pump discharge outlets