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45 Years of History in about 3 days…. Richard Nixon. Nixon’s policies as President Government is too big – the New Federalism –giving more power and money to local and state governments.

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richard nixon
Richard Nixon
  • Nixon’s policies as President
    • Government is too big – the New Federalism –giving more power and money to local and state governments.
    • Southern strategy – tried to weaken the 1965 Voting Rights Act, opposed the busing of students to integrate schools, and allowed local governments to take action in matters of race instead of the federal government.
    • In 1970 signed the Clean Air Act designed to deal with the growing issue of pollution.
    • OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Act, enforced safety standards in the workplace.
richard nixon1
Richard Nixon
  • Foreign policy
    • End the war in Vietnam
    • Realpolitik – basing foreign policy decisions on realistic views of national interest rather than broad rules or principles.
    • Détente – efforts to reduce Cold War tension
      • In 1969 Nixon began talks with the Soviets – SALT – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
    • Nixon improved US relationship with China and even visited Chairman Mao Zedong in 1972.
events at home
Events at Home
  • Apollo 11 Moon Landing, July 20, 1969
watergate scandal
Watergate Scandal
  • During the presidential election of 1972 Nixon’s aids ordered a break in of the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Hotel.
  • Two Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward began investigating the break in, but their stories did not effect the election and Nixon wins.
  • When some of the burglars began discussing connections to the White House, Nixon ordered an investigation and fired several of his advisors.
  • In July 1973 a Nixon aide revealed that President Nixon had been recording all his conversations since 1971. Nixon refused to give the tapes to Congress claiming executive privilege – the idea that the President can keep official conversations private.
watergate scandal1
Watergate Scandal
  • Nixon: I am not a Crook
  • Nixon continued to refuse to give up his tapes, and the White House admitted that an 18 minute portion of the tapes had been erased.
  • In July 1974 the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon must turn over the tapes to Congress
  • Nixon's Resignation Speech
  • Vice-President Gerald Ford became President, the first person to become President without being elected President or Vice-President.
  • As President, Ford pardoned Nixon – a formal legal forgiveness of a crime.
election of 1976
Election of 1976
  • President Ford faced competition from other Republicans, and then from the Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter.
  • Carter won the election and became a very non-traditional president.
    • Walked his inaugural parade route
    • Refused to have Hail to the Chief played when he entered a room
    • “I’ll never lie to you”
  • Carter dealt with many issues as President, including serious economic troubles, gas shortages, and environmental issues.
carter s foreign policy
Carter’s Foreign Policy
  • Camp David Accords – Carter helped negotiate a treaty between Egypt and Israel, ending several years of hostility between the two nations
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan – the US refused to trade with the Soviets and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
  • Iran hostage crisis – in 1979 a mob of Iranians attacked the US embassy and took several dozen American workers hostage. This move was supported by Iran’s new government. Carter was unable to negotiate a release and the military effort to rescue the hostages ended with a helicopter crash killing 8 soldiers.
election of 1980
Election of 1980
  • With Carter and his “crisis of confidence” the Republican challenger Ronald Reagan won the electoral college in a landslide. Hours after Reagan became President the hostages in Iran were released.
  • Reagan was the hero of the New Right movement
    • Endorsed school prayer
    • Lower taxes
    • Smaller government
    • Stronger military
    • Against gun control, abortion, homosexual rights, and affirmative action.
  • The New Right also had support from the Moral Majority – a growing number of Conservative Christians who emphasized the importance of moral values in America.
reagan as president
Reagan as President
  • Attempted Assassination of Reagan
  • In August 1981 Reagan faced a strike by the Air Traffic Controllers’ Organization and responded by firing them all.
  • Reaganomics
    • Two goals: cut taxes, and shrink the federal budget
    • Supply-side economics – tax cuts and business incentives stimulate investment which encourages economic growth, which results in an increase of the supply of goods and services
reagan s foreign policy
Reagan’s Foreign Policy
  • Reagan was extremely anti-communist, calling the Soviets “an evil empire”
  • Reagan pushed for massive increases in defense spending, much spent on nuclear weapons.
  • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) – nicknamed Star Wars, a proposed series of shields in space to protect in case of nuclear attack.
  • In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became the new leader of the Soviet Union who was open to negotiating with the Americans
iran contra affair
Iran-Contra Affair
  • President Reagan approved the sale of weapons to Iran, hoping Iran would help obtain the release of American hostages in Lebanon.
  • Unknown to Reagan, his National Security Council used the money from selling weapons to fund a group called the Contras in Nicaragua, who were fighting the communist Sandinistas, even though Congress had banned that practice.
  • The leader of Iran-Contra, Oliver North, admitted to destroying documents and evidence and was convicted of perjury.
election of 1988
Election of 1988
  • In 1988 Vice President George Bush defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis in an election noted for low voter interest.
  • Bush earned support during the election for his promise…
    • Read My Lips...
  • Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev began calling for a new era of openness or glasnost in the Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev also began the process of perestroika – the restructuring of the corrupt Soviet government.
  • During the late 1980’s several Soviet satellite nations began the process of leaving the Soviet Union and communist governments began to fall across Europe
berlin wall
Berlin Wall
  • On November 9, 1989 the East German government opened the gates to the Berlin Wall to calm rising protests.
  • News Coverage of the Berlin Wall
  • People on both sides began climbing the wall and began tearing down the wall.
  • Tearing Down the Wall
  • On October 3, 1990 East and West Germany were reunited as one democratic nation.
fall of the soviet union
Fall of the Soviet Union
  • In 1991 communists within the Soviet government seized power from Gorbachev in a coup to keep Gorbachev from signing a treaty granting partial freedoms to the Soviet satellites.
  • The Russian Republic, led by Boris Yeltsin, led a revolt against the Communists.
  • Gorbachev resigned as President and the Soviet Union officially dissolved.
  • Boris Yeltsin became the new leader of Russia
persian gulf war
Persian Gulf War
  • In August 1990 Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait
  • The UN declared that all Iraqi troops must leave Kuwait by January 15, 1991. When they did not the U.S. led forces attacked Iraqi forces the next day.
  • Operation Desert Storm – the name for the military campaign against Iraq. Used high technology airpower, stealth bombers, long range missiles.
  • Only 148 Americans were killed and the war was over within weeks.
highlights and lowlights of the 80 s
Highlights (and lowlights) of the 80’s
  • January 28, 1986 – space shuttle Challenger explodes, killing all seven astronauts on board.
  • Savings and loan crisis – a housing crisis that forced the government to bail out banks and other financial industries.
  • 1981 – President Reagan appoints Sandra Day O’Connor as the first female Supreme Court justice
  • In 1981 Americans first learn about a new disease: HIV/AIDS
election of 1992
Election of 1992
  • Republican George Bush, Democrat Bill Clinton, Independent Ross Perot.
  • While he did not get a majority of votes (Ross Perot got 19% of the vote), Bill Clinton won the Electoral College and became President.
  • Clinton made a number of domestic issue promises during his campaign
    • Reduce the budget deficit – Clinton raised taxes, which angered many Republicans, but the economy of the 1990’s boomed.
    • Proposed a government health care program that was not passed by Congress
challenges for clinton
Challenges for Clinton
  • In 1994 Republicans took control of the House and the Senate
  • Many Republicans campaigned on the promise called the Contract with America – a promise to balance the budget, fight crime, and lower taxes.
  • Clinton also had to face the issue of terrorism after the bombing of a building in Oklahoma City
  • In 1996 Clinton won reelection defeating the Republican Bob Dole and the Reform candidate Ross Perot
clinton s foreign policy
Clinton’s Foreign Policy
  • Oslo Accords – a peace agreement between Israel and Palestine
  • Somalia – UN soldiers were helping to distribute food to starving victims of the Civil War. Fighting increased and 18 American soldiers were killed in a 1993 battle. Clinton decided to remove troops from Somalia
  • Yugoslavia – American troops were involved in conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Serbia
  • NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement, established free trade between the US, Canada, and Mexico.
  • Whitewater – Clinton business partners were accused of acting improperly in obtaining and using loans.
  • Paula Jones – a woman who accused Clinton of sexual harassment when he was governor of Arkansas.
  • Monica Lewinsky – I did not speech
  • Clinton was accused of lying under oath and was impeached by the House of Representatives. However, he was not removed and Clinton served out the remainder of his term.
election of 2000
Election of 2000
  • Candidates: Democrat and Vice-President Al Gore, Republican George W. Bush, and Green Party Ralph Nader
  • The election was one of the closest in history with both Gore and Bush claiming victory, and the election came down to who would win the state of Florida.
  • Recounts and problems with ballots took weeks to sort out until the Supreme Court ruled that a second recount must stop and that the first recount would stand, meaning Bush became President, even though he had gotten fewer votes in the election.
george w bush
George W. Bush
  • Tax cuts
  • No Child Left Behind – states must develop academic standards that test students annually to ensure that those standards are met.
  • Bush also pushed for Faith-Based Initiatives – government helps religious community service organizations to help deal with the problems of homelessness, troubled youth, and former prison inmates.
  • In 2004 Bush defeated Democrat John Kerry to win reelection.
9 11 2001
  • ABC News Coverage
  • NBC News: Pentagon 9/11
  • President Bush's Message to the Country
  • 2,749 people were killed in New York alone, along with those at the Pentagon and aboard United Flight 93 that crashed in Pennsylvania
  • Blame for the attacks was claimed by the terrorist organization al Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden
  • Also targeted was the Afghanistan government organization the Taliban, who protected and assisted bin Laden
war on terror
War on Terror
  • At home the US government created the Department of Homeland Security and passed the Patriot Act – made it easier for the government to collect information about suspected terrorists, and was argued against by many who said the law gave the government too much power and was a threat to freedom.
  • Throughout 2002 and 2003 President Bush sought support for forceful action against Iraq and its leader Saddam Hussein.
  • Bush suspected Iraq had “weapons of mass destruction” but the UN weapons inspectors never found any.
  • Despite the lack of evidence American forces invaded Iraq in March 2003 and quickly captured Saddam Hussein.
  • While the combat officially ended within months, American troops were in Iraq for many years
war on terror1
War on Terror
  • On May 11, 2011 US forces killed Osama bin Laden
  • The War on Terror continues today as there are still American troops on the ground in Afghanistan.
2008 election
2008 Election
  • In 2008 the Democrat Barack Obama defeated the Republican John McCain, making Obama the first African-American President
  • Yes We Can