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Number 105

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  1. Number 105 Which pair of organisms on the phylogenetic tree depicted in the illustration represents the most closely related taxa? • Z and A • A and B • B and C • C and D • Z and D

  2. Answer • The correct answer is (D). The change from a primitive to a derived state of character I separates taxon Z (the outgroup) from the remaining species. Taxa B, C, and D share two derived characters and, thus, are more closely related to each other than each is to taxon A. Following this reasoning, taxa C and D appear to be the most closely related pair of taxa depicted. These two taxa share three derived characters (I, II, and III), suggesting that they are more closely related to each other than either is to taxon B.

  3. Number 106 All of the following ideas are essential to Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection EXCEPT ________ • Individuals tend to produce more offspring than can survive • Variation is present in all populations • Characteristics acquired by one parent can be passed on to their offspring. • Resources are usually limited • Those individuals who produce the most fertile offspring are the most fit

  4. Number 107 The wings of a bird and those of an insect are a good example of ____. • Adaptive radiation • Coevolution • Convergent evolution • All of the above • None of the above

  5. Answer • The correct answer is (C). Convergent evolution describes conditions where organisms appear to have homologous structures that are, in fact, analogous. They are analogous because the organisms are not closely related, and the wings evolved from different basal structures.

  6. Number 108 The age of the Earth is about ______ years, and life has existed on the Earth for ______ years. • 3.5 billion, 2.5 billion • 3.5 billion, 1.5 billion • 15 billion, 3.5 billion • 4.5 billion, 600 million • 4.5 billion, 3.5 billion

  7. Answer • The correct answer is (E). The earliest prokaryotic fossils date to about 3.5 billion years ago. The 600 million date refers to the Cambrian explosion, which refers to the rapid evolution of animal forms.

  8. Number 109 Lichens are composed of both fungal and algal (or cyanobacterial) components. The fungal component absorbs water and nutrients for both organisms, while the algal component manufactures food for both organisms through photosynthesis. This type of symbiotic relationship is referred to as _____. • Parasitism • Commensalism • Predation • Mutualism • Interspecific competition

  9. Answer • The correct answer is (D). Mutualism involves a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from their association. In commensalism, one organism benefits while the other is not significantly affected by the relationship. Neither parasitism nor predation are symbiotic relationships; in both cases, the association is detrimental to one of the organisms involved.

  10. Number 110 Which of the following organisms would NOT be considered a primary producer? • phytoplankton • algae • moss • fungi • cyanobacteria

  11. Answer • The correct answer is (D). Fungi are detritivores, feeding on decaying matter. All of the other organisms listed are photosynthetic autotrophsand, therefore, make up the base of the food chain- the producers.

  12. Number 111 Organisms are placed in different trophic levels according to how they obtain their energy. Another name for primary consumer is ______. • green plant • herbivore • carnivore • omnivore • decomposer

  13. Answer • The correct answer is (B). All primary consumers are herbivores, and all secondary consumers are carnivores (because they eat the primary consumers). Omnivores can be either, depending on where they are feeding on the food chain.

  14. Number 112 A. A B. B C. C D. D E. None of the above Which letter represents the process of transpiration?

  15. Answer • The correct answer is (A). Transpiration is the loss of water by plants. Choice (B) illustrates evaporation.

  16. Number 113 Some organisms living in a vacant lot include grass, dandelions, mice, grasshoppers, and slugs. Collectively these organisms represent ______. • an ecosystem • a community • a population • a mutualism • a biome

  17. Answer • The correct answer is (B). A community is made up only of organisms. An ecosystem is the organisms and their abiotic surroundings.

  18. Number 114 Predators in an ecosystem _____ A. help the community by keeping the number of prey from outstripping their resources B. help the prey population by removing the sick and less fit individuals C. enhance species diversity D. reduce the possibility of competitive exclusion E. All of the above

  19. Answer • The correct answer is (E). Predators can increase biodiversity by keeping one species from dominating competitors. For instance, assume that there are three types of mice living in the same area. One might be a superior competitor and drive the others to extinction if owls didn’t feed on that particular type of mouse.

  20. Number 115 Which one of the following lists contains an organism that does NOT belong in the phylum? • jellyfish, coral, anemone, starfish • Tunicates, birds, sharks, man • Bats, dogs, cats, sloths • Liver fluke, planaria, tapeworm, flatworms • Clam, squid, nautilus, snail

  21. Answer • The correct answer is (A). All the organisms here are Cnidarians, with the exception of the Echinoderm starfish.

  22. Number 116 Which statement best describes one of the levels of the pyramid? • Level A contains the largest producers in the pyramid. • The organisms in level B obtain food directly from level A. • Level C contains the largest group of consumers in the pyramid • Level D contains the greatest number of heterotrophs in the pyramid • Levels C and D both contain producers

  23. Answer • The correct answer is (C). Level D is producers. Organisms in level B obtain food directly from level C. Level A contains the largest consumer in the pyramid.

  24. Number 117 In a natural community, all the living things that directly or indirectly affect the environment are known as ____. • pioneer organisms • keystone species • secondary consumers • climatic factors • biotic factors

  25. Answer • The correct answer is (E). Biotic factors include symbiotic relationships, disease, mimicry, food, and the like.

  26. Number 118 A major difference between gram positive and gram negative bacteria is that the former has _____. • A liposaccharide outer covering with a small peptidoglycan component in the cell wall • A small peptidoglycan component covering a large liposaccharide base. • A large peptidoglycan component in the cell wall • A cell wall composed of liposaccharide and chitin • A cell wall composed of chitin over pepitidoglycan

  27. Answer • The correct answer is (C). While both types have some peptidoglycan, the gram negative bacteria have less and are covered with a liposaccharide layer.

  28. Number 119 Which of the following is found in all viruses? (A) protein coat (B) cell membrane (C) membrane-bound organelles (D) ER (E) mitochondrial DNA

  29. Answer • The correct answer is (A). Of the structures listed, all viruses are found within a protective protein coat. All of the other structures are found in eukaryotic cells: a cell membrane to act as a barrier to things entering the cell; ER, which refers to the endoplasmic reticulum, the canal system of the cell, and the site where protein synthesis takes place; membrane-bound organelles is self-explanatory; and mitochondrial DNA is found in the mitochondria.


  31. Contain a single type of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA) Contain a protein coat-capsid. with or without an outer lipid envelope. Viruses are between 20 and 100 times smaller than bacteria cannot reproduce outside of a living cell. Characteristics

  32. virus particles –virions viral genes may consist of either DNA or RNA viral protective shell-capsid. Structure and Classification

  33. Classification • Viruses are classified according to their type of genetic material, their strategy of replication, and their structure.

  34. Viral Replication

  35. Number 120 Which of the following categories includes the most distantly related organisms? (A) family (B) species (C) class (D) genus (E) order

  36. Answer • The correct answer is (C). The most specific group listed is the species and includes organisms that are virtually identical to each other, with slight variations. They have the same structures, act alike, and can mate and produce offspring that can mate. This group has the most closely related organisms. The next group, less specific than the species, is the Genus. The genus Canus, for example, includes all the dog-like organisms—wolf, coyote, and the domesticated dog. The family level is one up from the Genus and lies several levels below class, which means it has more widely varied examples than the Genus level but far fewer than the class level. Class is the group with the most widely varied organisms. For example, the class Mammalia of the phylum Chordates includes elephants, tigers, bears, cats, dolphins, and humans.

  37. Number 121 Which of the following have a visceral mass and a muscular foot? (A) Medusoids (B) Annelida (C) Aschelminthes (D) Mollusca (E) Arthropoda

  38. Answer • The correct answer is (D). Mollusks include the bi-valves, which possess considerable visceral mass, and a muscular foot with which they burrow and use for movement.Medusoids include the very simple body planned coelenterates, such as hydra and jellyfish, and lack significant visceral mass—if what they possess can be called that. Annelids do not have a muscular foot, and their viscera, while well developed, is not as substantial as a bi-valve’s. Aschelminthes is a roundworm with more viscera than the cnidarians, but still considerably less than even the annelids. Finally, the arthropods are jointed-legged creatures and do not possess a single, muscular foot.

  39. Number 122 Which of the following is radially symmetrical and possesses nematocysts? (A) Porifera (B) Coelenterates (C) Mollusca (D) Amphibians (E) Polychaetes

  40. Answer • The correct answer is (B). Coelenterates, such as the jellyfish and the sea anemone, are well known for their radial symmetry and their stinging cells. Porifera have no symmetry. All the rest of the choices have bilateral symmetry—polychaetes are segmented worms that are predominantly marine; molluscs include octopuses and squid, neither of which have stinging cells; and amphibians are chordates with neither radial symmetry nor stinging cells. Some frogs secrete powerful toxins through their skin, but none of the cells in their skin has the ability to sting.

  41. Number 123 Digestion in protozoans is ____. (A) extracellular. (B) intracellular. (C) intercellular. (D) dorsal. (E) none of the above.

  42. Answer • The correct answer is (B). Unicellular protists take their food into the cell that is the entire organism and digest it entirely intracellularly. Humans, for example, digest their nutrients extracellularly and absorb them into cells only after they are digested. Since protists are unicellular, the suggestion of intercellular digestion is meaningless. The reference to dorsal is a certain orientation or place on multicellular organisms.

  43. Question # 124. Which of the organisms below has radial symmetry? • beetle • sponge • jellyfish • both the beetle and the sponge

  44. Question # 125 The phylogenetic diagram shows a possible evolutionary relationship between plants and algae. According to this diagram, which plants have evolved most recently? • angiosperms • gymnosperms • seedless vascular plants • nonvascular plants

  45. Question # 126 To which level of classification does a group of closely related species of organisms belong? • class • order • genus • family

  46. Question # 127 Flagella are characteristic of members of which phylum? A. mastigophora B. ciliophora C. sarcodina D. sporozoa

  47. Question # 128 Which of the following is the structure that acts as pump and regulates excess water in the cell of a paramecium? • contractile vacuole • trichocyst • food vacuole • oral groove

  48. Question # 129 Which of the following plants are atracheophytes? • ferns and cycads • conifers and ginkgoes • hornworts and liverworts • horsetails and club mosses

  49. Question # 130 What do all arthropods have in common? • spiny skin • soft body • jointed legs • presence of tentacles

  50. Question # 131 Refer to the figure. Which of the following is an example of a cephalopod mollusk? A. snail B. grasshopper C. hydra D. squid