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Recombinant DNA Technology for the non-science major.
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  1. Recombinant DNA Technology for the non-science major.

  2. Historical Perspective • Pre-history before 1928 • Ancient before 1944 • Medieval 1944-1952 • Renaissance 1953-1971 • Modern Era 1971 to present

  3. Further Historical Perspective Geneticists have known for a long time how to isolate DNA from cells. Geneticists have known for a long time how to chop DNA into small pieces. What geneticists did not know how to do until the early 1970s was to replicate small fragments of DNA.

  4. 1970s Breakthrough: • The discovery of the restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease).

  5. Properties of RE: • Cut double-stranded DNA at specific target sites. • Allow fragments of DNA that have been cut with the same RE to be rejoined.

  6. Properties of RE con’t: • There are hundreds of popular RE. They all recognize a small target sequence (4-8 b.p.).

  7. The joining of two DNA fragments by DNA ligase produces a recombinant DNA molecule

  8. Therefore, eukaryotic DNA could be propagated in prokaryotic cells.A great breakthrough!!!!!

  9. Carriers of foreign DNA are Vectors: • Most vectors are derived from: • 1.Plasmids • 2. Bacteriophages • 3. Cosmids (artificial constructions)

  10. A prokaryotic vector should: • 1. Be capable of autonomous replication independent of the main bacterial chromosome • 2. Be easy to isolate, i.e. small. • 3. Be non-toxic to host cells. • 4. Have space for foreign inserts. • 5. Have unique restriction sites for common restriction enzymes. • 6. Have convenient markers for selection of transformants, e.g. antibiotic resistance genes. • 7. Be relaxed, i.e. multiple copies in a host cell.

  11. A bacteriophage is a virus that infects a bacteria.

  12. ?

  13. Introduction to PCR • PCR (polymerase chain reaction). * p r c

  14. What is PCR? • PCR is site-specific in vitro DNA replication.

  15. DNA Replication Review: • Add DNA polymerase, all 4 DNA building blocks  ??? 5’ CTGACGCTGCTGCATGCTAGCT 3’ 3’ GACTACGACGACGTACGATCGA 5’

  16. DNA Replication Review: • Primers are required: 5’ CTGACGCTGCTGCATGCTAGCT 3’ CGA 5’ 5’ CTG 3’ GACTACGACGACGTACGATCGA 5’

  17. DNA Replication Review: • Primers are required: 5’ CTGACGCTGCTGCATGCTAGCT 3’ . . . t a c g a t CGA 5’ 5’ CTG a t g c t g . . . . 3’ GACTACGACGACGTACGATCGA 5’

  18. Action of DNA Polymerases: • DNA polymerases can add new nucleotides to an exposed 3’ end!

  19. PCR reaction mix: • All 4 DNA building blocks (A,C, G, & T) • Taq DNA polymerase (heat resistant) • DNA to be replicated • A pair of primers

  20. Human Chromosome # 8: | | | | | || || || || | add primers: | |  | || || || || | Human Chromosome # 8: | | | || || ||| || | | | || || || || |

  21. PCR product? • The binding of the primers determines where the DNA is replicated. • The PCR product is a double-stranded DNA molecule with its ends defined by the location of primer binding sites.

  22. PCR • PCR reaction mix incubates for about 2 hours in a thermocycler (fancy incubator). • The thermocycler heats and cools through 30-40 temperatures cycles.

  23. DNALC: PCR Animation

  24. Two impt. PCR questions: • What is the source of a pair of primers? What information is a prerequisite for PCR?

  25. PCR Applications: #1- Cell-free rapid gene cloning!! #2- Gene cloning/amplification from a miniscule sample size.

  26. Introduction to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

  27. Weigh out ~ a gram of agarose.

  28. Mix the agarose with 50- 100 ml of buffer.

  29. Heat to dissolve the agarose.

  30. Assemble the gel tray and comb.

  31. Pour the gel.

  32. Pick up the DNA sample with a microliter pipettor.

  33. Load one DNA sample into each well on the gel.

  34. Connect the gel to a low voltage power supply.

  35. After completion of the run, add a DNA staining material and visualize the DNA under UV light.

  36. Analyze the results.