injuries to muscles bones and joints n.
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Chapter Eight - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Injuries to Muscles, Bones, and Joints. Chapter Eight. Muscles. Type of soft tissue which contract and relax to produce various movements Three types of Muscle: Skeletal- attached to bones, produces body movement Smooth- Lines blood vessels, digestive tract, organs

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  • Type of soft tissue which contract and relax to produce various movements
  • Three types of Muscle:
    • Skeletal- attached to bones, produces body movement
    • Smooth- Lines blood vessels, digestive tract, organs
    • Cardiac- found in heart, produces rhythmic contractions
  • Tendon - a cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue
    • connects muscle to bone
  • Hard connective tissue forming the substance of the skeleton
  • Have a rich supply of

blood and nerves

  • Protect organs
  • Not easily injured
  • The ends of two or more bones coming together at one place form a joint.
  • Ligaments - sheet or band of tough, fibrous tissue
    • connects bones to other bones
  • A complete or partial break or a chip in a bone cause be a fall, blunt force, or twisting.
  • Open (Compound) Fracture
    • When the skin is broken by either
      • Bone pierces through the skin
      • Something coming in through the skin causing the injury (Ex: bullet)
  • Closed (Simple) Fracture
    • Skin is in tact
    • More common
  • The movement of a bone at a joint away from its normal position.
  • The joint will no longer function.
  • Often forms a bump, a ridge or a hollow that does not normally exist.
  • Injury resulting from the stretch or twist of the joint.
    • Causes various degrees of stretch or tear of a ligament
  • A severe sprain may also involve a fracture or dislocation.
  • Stretching or tearing of the muscles or tendons.
  • Usually occur by working a muscles too hard.
  • Some strains can reoccur like in the neck and back.
signs of serious injury
Signs of Serious Injury
  • Significant deformity
  • Bruising or swelling
  • Inability to use the injured part normally
  • Bone sticking out through the skin
  • Person feels bone grating, heard a snap or pop
  • The injured area is cold or numb
  • Cause of injury suggests the injury could be severe
call 9 1 1 if

There is obvious deformity

There is moderate to severe swelling and discoloration

A snap or pop was heard or felt at the time of injury

It is an open fracture

The person cannot move or use the effected part normally

The area is cold or numb

The injured area is cold or numb

It involves the head, neck or spine

The person has trouble breathing

It is not possible to safely or comfortably move the person to a vehicle for transport to a hospital

Call 9-1-1 if -
r i c e
  • Rest – Do not move or straighten the area
  • Immobilize – stabilize the area in the position it was found
  • Cold – fill a plastic bag or wrap ice with a damp cloth and apply ice to the injured area for periods of 20 minutes
  • Elevate – Only elevate the injured area if it WILL NOT cause more pain
splinting injuries
Splinting Injuries
  • The purpose of immobilizing an injury is to –
    • Lessen pain
    • Prevent further damage
    • Reduce the risk of serious bleeding or loss of circulation
    • Prevent closed fractures from becoming open fractures
principles of splinting
Principles of Splinting
  • Splint only if the person must be moved
  • Splint only if you can do it without causing more pain
  • Splint the injury in the position you find it
  • Splint above and below the injury
    • If it’s a fracture, splint the joints
    • If it’s a sprain or joint injury, splint the bones
  • Check for circulation before and after splinting
types of splints
Types of Splints
  • Anatomic Splint
    • Use the person’s body as a splint
  • Soft Splint
    • Use soft materials to splint
    • A sling is a specific type of soft splint
  • Rigid Splint
    • Boards, folded magazines
  • The ground
    • An injured leg stretched out on the ground is splinted by the ground
head neck and back injuries
Head, Neck, and Back Injuries
  • Can cause paralysis, speech or memory problems
  • Can damage bones and soft tissue
  • These injuries should always be taken seriously
head injuries
Head Injuries
  • Injuries to the head can rupture blood vessels in the brain.
  • Pressure builds and can cause further damage
  • Most common type- Concussion
  • Signals of head injuries:
    • Dizziness
    • Confusion
    • Unconsciousness
spinal neck and back injuries
Spinal (Neck and Back) Injuries
  • The spine is a strong, flexible column of 33 vertebrae separated by disks.
  • The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the spinal column.
  • Injuries to the neck or back can fracture vertebrae, tear ligaments, and cut or squeeze the spinal cord causing paralysis.
when to suspect a head neck or back injury
When to suspect a head, neck, or back injury -
  • Car accident
  • Fall greater than a standing height
  • Violence
  • Sports – helmet is broken
  • Complains of neck, back, head pain
  • Has a tingling or weakness in the extremities
  • Is not fully alert
  • Appears intoxicated
  • Appears to be frail or over 65 old
  • Person is under 3 years old
care for head neck and back injuries
Care for Head, Neck, and Back Injuries
  • Call 9-1-1
  • Minimize the person’s movement
  • Hold the person in the position you find them
    • Place hands on both sides of person’s head
    • Hold head in the position you found it until EMS arrives
  • Do not remove a helmet if one is present

A brain injury that involves a temporary loss of brain function resulting from a blow to the head.

  • Effects may appear immediately or very soon after the blow to the head.
  • Signs and Symptoms include –
    • Sleepiness
    • Mood and cognitive disturbances
    • Sensitivity to light and noise
chest injuries
Chest Injuries
  • A person with a broken rib will take small shallow breaths and experience discomfort by the injured area
  • Have the person rest in a position that makes breathing easier
  • Bind the upper arm to the person’s chest on the injured side
pelvic injuries
Pelvic Injuries
  • The pelvis surrounds important organs inside the body as well as the lower spine
  • Call 9-1-1
  • Do not move the victim, keep them lying flat, monitor life signs and care for shock