1.2 Fabric Analysis:

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# 1.2 Fabric Analysis: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1.2 Fabric Analysis:. Ⅰ. Making samples Ⅱ. Identification of face or back of the fabric Ⅲ. Identification of warp and weft Ⅳ. Density measurement Ⅴ. Crimp measurement Ⅵ. Linear density (tex) measurement Ⅶ . Fiber identification Ⅷ .Fabric weight Ⅸ. Fabric structure and color arrangement.

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### 1.2 Fabric Analysis:

Ⅰ. Making samples

Ⅱ. Identification of face or back of the fabric

Ⅲ. Identification of warp and weft

Ⅳ. Density measurement

Ⅴ. Crimp measurement

Ⅵ. Linear density (tex) measurement

Ⅶ . Fiber identification

Ⅷ .Fabric weight

Ⅸ. Fabric structure and color arrangement

Purposes:

Get to know the fabric parameters

Reasons for knowing the fabric parameters:

The properties of the fabric are closely linked to fabric parameters

Ⅰ. Making samples
• The sample should properly represent the characteristics of the fabric.

Location:

• The sample should not be selected near the edge of the fabric. The distance from the selvage must be more than 5 centimeters, and that from the end of the fabric must be more than 1.5 to 3 meters.
Size:
• The size of the sample varies depending on the characteristics of the fabric, 15cm ×15cm are suitable for simple structure and small pattern fabrics, and 20cm×20cm for fabrics with big pattern.
Ⅱ. Identification of face or back of the fabric
• The face of a fabric has a clear colour or patterns.
• For rib or corded fabrics, the face are usually more dense and smooth.
• For pile fabrics, the face has piles.
• For double fabrics, the face has higher density, and better materials.
• For terry fabrics, the face has denser loops.
Ⅲ. Identification of warp and weft
• The warp is always parallel with selvage.
• The warp may be sized, and the weft not.
• The warp usually has a bigger density .
• The warp direction may have reed marks.
• The warp is more often using ply yarn.

Identification of warp and weft

• The Z-twist yarns are used for warp, and S-twist for weft if the warp and weft are different in twist direction.
• The warp usually has higher twisted yarns.
• The warp is usually better in quality.
• For terry fabrics, the warp forms the loops.
• For striped fabrics, the warp is parallel to the stripes.
• Warp can be easily arranged with different kinds of yarns.
Ⅳ. Density measurement
• The density of the fabric is very important, as it directly affects the fabric’s appearance, handle, thickness, strength, warmth retention. There are two ways to measure it.

a: Direct measurement

b: Indirect measurement

Direct measurement

Indirect measurement-woven fabric

This is carried out by using an optical device known as a taper line grating.

Ⅴ. Crimp measurement
• Crimp refers to the amount of bending that is done by a thread as it interlaces with the threads that are lying in the opposite direction of the fabric
• Formula:

Where: ly is the length of the yarn

lf is the length of the fabric

Ⅵ .Linear density (tex) measurement

Where : G ─ The weight of the thread in gram at the official moisture regain

L─ The length of the thread in meter

The thread linear density indicates the weight in gram of 1000m of thread

Ⅶ. Fiber identification
• a) Microscopically examination of the longitudinal and cross-sectional views of the fiber.
• b) Burning test
• c) The use of solvents
• d) Other chemical tests
• e) Staining
• f) Melting point determination
• g) Fiber density
Ⅷ .Fabric weight
• Weighting measurement:

Mass per unit area(g/m2)=specimen mass (g) ×100

Where: mass per unit area is expressed in grams per square meter

specimen is 10cm×10cm

• Calculating measurement: fabric weight is the sum of the weight of warp and weft threads

Where:p1—warp density(ends/10cm)

p2--- weft density (picks/10cm)

a1--- warp take-up(%)

a2 --- weft take-up(%)

Tex1—warp linear density

Tex2–- weft linear density

Ⅸ. Fabric structure and colour arrangement
• It is necessary to know the way in which the fabric is constructed. For example, twill weave or sateen. This can be obtained viewing the fabric with a piece of magnifying glass or a low magnification microscope.
Home work:
• Analyze the given samples, get all the parameters you could.