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Foreign Policies of the 1920s. The way the US interacts with the world post WWI. Learning Target:.

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foreign policies of the 1920s

Foreign Policies of the 1920s

The way the US interacts with the world post WWI

learning target
Learning Target:
  • The US foreign policy during the 1920s was the idea of doing the least amount possible in foreign affairs with the purpose of preventing/avoiding future wars. (i.e. not joining the League of Nations, Dawes, Washington Conference, Kellogg Briand Pact).
  • America changes from interventionist to isolationist policies with the purpose of “returning to “normalcy”, meaning focusing on America’s concerns.
1 the dawes plan
1. The Dawes Plan
  • influence European economies without direct government intervention
  • Post WWI – Allies owed the US $10 Billion – could not repay unless Germany repaid their $30 billion debt
1 the dawes plan1
1. The Dawes Plan
  • Germany defaulted on it’s payments in Dec 1922 and Jan 1923, the French marched into Germany’s Ruhr valley. To avoid another war, the US stepped in.
1 the dawes plan2
1. The Dawes Plan
  • US sent Charles G. Dawes (wealthy Chicago banker) to negotiate loans from private American banks to Germany and set up a new payment schedule. These negotiations became known as the Dawes Plan.
1 the dawes plan3
1. The Dawes Plan
  • US banks loaned Germany 2.5 Billion – Germany could pay the Allies, Allies could now pay the US government
1 the dawes plan4
1. The Dawes Plan
  • Outcome = This only helped with a fraction that was owed, but it avoided another war
  • The US became the most powerful country in the world
2 the washington conference
2. The Washington Conference
  • - November 1921, nine nations met at the Washington Naval Conference to discuss disarmament – limitation or reduction of weapons. Led by Hughes – US Secretary of State.
2 the washington conference1
2. The Washington Conference

Outcome – three major treaties were signed

  • 1. the US, GB, Japan, FR, and IT pledged to limit the number of their largest ships and stop constructing new ships
2 the washington conference2
2. The Washington Conference

2. GB and US = keep 500,000 tons of ships each, Japan 300,000 tons, France and Italy = 167,000 tons – Japan not happy – called the 5:5:3 – “Rolls-Royce, Rolls-Royce, Ford.” Only agreed if American and GB would not build new naval bases on the western Pacific islands.

2 the washington conference3
2. The Washington Conference

3. Japan promised to respect China’s sovereignty and independence.

  • US concerns about Japanese power and ambitions in the Pacific….
3 the kellogg briand act
3. The Kellogg-Briand Act
  • Two-nation pact by France’s foreign minister – Aristide Briand – goal was to outlaw war and create a world treaty.
3 kellogg briand pact
3. Kellogg – Briand Pact
  • 14 Nations initially signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 – the treaty declared war illegal, but did not include punishments for future attackers
  • Purpose was to end US military entanglements with Europe.
4 relations with latin america
4. Relations with Latin America
  • US wanted to protect its interests in Latin America
  • Business firms continued their search for markets and raw materials
4 relations with latin america1
4. Relations with Latin America
  • By 1924, the US controlled 14/20 Latin American countries
  • US felt that it was their right to extend its civilization south of the border
4 relations with latin america2
4. Relations with Latin America
  • After WWI, US removed some military in Central America, but kept troops where the US had high interest – ex) Nicaragua – US bankers and policy makers essentially controlled the economy
  • By 1929, American policymakers began to recognize that US troops in Latin America created resentment abroad and criticism at home.