Word List muhajirun (migrants) ansar (helpers) umma (community) Constitution of Medina
Word List Timeline Banu Qaynuqa‘ Banu’l-Nadir Banu Qurayza khandaq (ditch) Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh 624 Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Banu Qaynuqa‘. 625 Battle of Uhud. Expulsion of the Banu’l-Nadir. 627 Battle of the khandaq. Execution of the Banu Qurayza.
Word List Timeline Isma‘il/Ishmael Ta’if haram Ka‘ba jizya hajj ‘A’isha 628 Truce with Mecca 629 Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca 630 Muhammad takes Mecca 632 Death of Muhammad (8th June)
Map Link: Islamic Lands at the Death of Muhammad: <http://mrgrayhistory.wikispaces.com/file/view/Islam_-_ Spread_Arabia.jpg/243997577/Islam_-_Spread_Arabia.jpg>
Issues in the Biographies of Muhammad 1. Sources written long after Muhammad’s death 2. Biographies as contextualisation and defence of Qur’an and Islam 3. Muhammad as ideal figure and exemplar
Ibn Ishaq (b. Medina c. 704, d. Baghdad 767) Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar ibn Khiyar Scholar from family of story-transmitters Studied in Alexandria and Medina. Got into quarrel with Malik ibn Anas (d. 795) and had to leave. Eventually settled in Baghdad. Scholars during life and after divided on his reliability.
Ibn Ishaq (b. Medina c. 704, d. Baghdad 767) Works: Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (biography of the Prophet) Kitab al-Khulafa’ (book on the caliphs) Sunan (book of hadith [stories] of Prophet and companions, guide for life) Sunan lost. Others survive through other writers’ works. Sira preserved in version edited by Ibn Hisham (d. 828 or 833) and in other works, including history of al-Tabari
Al-Tabari (b. Amul 839, d. Baghdad 923) Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Jarir ibn Yazid al-Tabari Son of prosperous landowner. Child prodigy. Left home at 12 to seek scholars to learn from. Travelled widely. Settled in Baghdad. Wrote on history, Qur’anic interpretation, jurisprudence. Taught, but never in official position.
Al-Tabari (b. Amul 839, d. Baghdad 923) Comprehensive user of sources, but also uses own judgment. Works: many, including: Mukhtasar Ta’rikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk wa’l-Khulafa’ (universal history from creation to 915. 12.5 vols; original was ten times that!) Jami‘al-Bayan ‘an Ta’wil al-Qur’an (commentary on Qur’an, finished 896-903)
isnad = chain of transmitters qara’a = to read/to recite mi‘raj (miraculous night journey)