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The Evolution of Policing

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    1. The Evolution of Policing John Merren AJS 101

    2. Early British Policing The constable and sheriff (shire-reeve) are from early British policing. The emphasis was on community cooperation to identify and apprehend law breakers. In 1285 the Watch and Wardsystem required all men in a community to take turns assisting the constable keepting the community safe. In 1748, the Bow Street Runners were the first group organized to patrol and prevent crime.

    3. Modern Policing Begins In 1829, Sir Robert Peel established The Metropolitan Police of London. Their effectiveness and popularity resulted in the public naming them after Sir Robert, Bobbies.

    4. Sir Robert Peels Nine Principles The basic mission is to prevent crime and disorder. The ability of police to perform is dependent on public approval. In order to maintain public respect, police must secure voluntary observance of the law. The degree of public cooperation diminishes proportionately with the use of force. Police seek and preserve public favor by constantly demonstrating impartial service to the law. Physical force is used only to the extent necessary to restore order and only after persuasion, advice, and warning is insufficient. Every citizen is responsible for public welfare, and the police are only paid to give it their full-time attention. Police should always perform their functions and not those of the judiciary. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not visible evidence of police action.

    5. Urban American Police of the 1850s New Your, Chicago, and other major cities formed police forces. Officers were poorly paid, not respected, and seldom well prepared for their duties.