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NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”) NETHERLANDS MODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS. Part Four How projects under the Model achieve most of the Millennium goals in project areas. Plan of the presentation.

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part four how projects under the model achieve most of the millennium goals in project areas

NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”)NETHERLANDSMODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

Part Four

How projects under the Model achieve most of the Millennium goals in project areas.

plan of the presentation
Plan of the presentation
  • Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
  • Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education.
  • Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women.
  • Goal 4 : Reduce child moratlity.
  • Goal 5 : Improve maternal health.
  • Goal 7 : Ensure evnvironmental sustainability.
  • Goal 6 : Combat HIV/aids, malaria and other diseases.
  • Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Why monitoring project results is so easy.
  • Some inherent limitations of the Millennium goals.
goal 1 eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
  • Target 01 : Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day.
  • Sub-target 01 : Proportion of population below US$1 (PPP) per Day (World Bank)
  • Sub-target 02: Poverty gap ratio US$ 1 per day (World Bank)
  • Sub-target 03 : Share of poorest quintile in National Income or Consumption
  • Target 02 : Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
  • Sub-target 04 : Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (UNICEF)
  • Sub-target 05 : Proportion of the population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (F.A.O.)
slide4
Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.Target 01 : Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day.
  • Whoops ! Am I in the right half?
  • Planned results.
  • US$ 1 per day and quality of life.
  • Projects apply to everyone in project areas
  • Full package of basic services supplied.
  • Good quality of life for all.
  • 4000 direct job opportunities.
  • Individuals profit through savings on present service costs.
  • Social security structures for the needy.
  • Extensions to regional and national levels.
slide5
Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.Target 02 : Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
  • Everyone in project area will be well fed.
  • Food production structures set up.
  • Local production for local use.
  • How wide variation of diet is assured.
  • Food security in times of crisis.
  • Cooperative distribution of surpluses.
  • Cooperative storage facilities.
  • Plant nurseries.
  • Seed banks.
  • The power of the local money systems.
  • Social security structures for the needy.
  • Extensions to regional and national levels.
goal 2 achieve universal primary education
Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education.
  • Target 03 : Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling.
  • Sub-target 06 : Net enrolment ratio in primary education (UNESCO).
  • Sub-target 07 : Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (UNESCO)
  • Sub-target 08 : Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds (UNESCO)
goal 2 achieve universal primary education1
Goal 2 : Achieve universal primary education.
  • Target 03 : Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling.
  • All children in project area will enjoy a full course of primary and, where desired, secondary education.
  • Trade school and propedeuse for university.
  • Young people in the 15-24 age group at project commencement.
  • How hundreds of schools can be built in the project area and staffed.
  • Hundreds of solar-lit study rooms.
  • Evening courses, especially for women.
goal 3 promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women.
  • Target 04 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by 2015.
  • Sub-target 09 : Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (UNESCO)
  • Sub-target 10 : Ratio of literate women to men 15-24 years old (UNESCO)
  • Sub-target 11 : Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (ILO)
  • Sub-target 12 : Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (IPU)
goal 3 promote gender equality and empower women1
Goal 3 : Promote gender equality and empower women.
  • Target 04 : Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by 2015.
  • Full primary, secondary education available to all.
  • Trade school and (possibly) propeduese for university available.
  • Illiteracy for 15-24 years-olds disappears as full education paths are completed.
  • Solving illiteracy amongst 15-24 years-olds witrhout education at the moment the project starts.
  • Adult education (especially for women and girls)
  • Study rooms
  • Hygiene education courses.
  • Wage employment for women NOT supported. (Subtarget 11)
  • Cooperatives, micro-credits, and local money system.
  • How women dominate project structures.
  • Built-in training for participation in formal political structures.
goal 4 reduce child mortality
Goal 4 : Reduce child mortality.
  • Target 5 : Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five.
  • Sub-target 13 : Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF)
  • Sub-target 14 : Infant mortality rate (UNICEF)
  • Sub-target 15 : Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (UNICEF)
goal 4 reduce child mortality1
Goal 4 : Reduce child mortality.
  • Target 5 : Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five.
  • Hygiene education courses.
  • Clean drinking water and sanitation facilities.
  • Elimination of smoke in homes.
  • Varied diet.
  • Waste recycling system.
  • Drainage
  • Preventive action against mosquitoes, flies and vermin.
  • Nursing facilities
  • Distribution of medicines.
  • Immunisation against measles NOT covered.
goal 5 improve maternal health
Goal 5 : Improve maternal health.
  • Target 06 : Reduce by three quarters the maternity mortality ratio.
  • Sub-target 16 : Maternity mortality ratio.
  • Sub-target 17 : Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel.
goal 5 improve maternal health1
Goal 5 : Improve maternal health.
  • Target 06 : Reduce by three quarters the maternity mortality ratio.
  • Limits of the project and the responsibility of the Ministry of Health
  • Hygiene education (health) clubs.
  • Reduction of work load on women.
  • Clean drinking water, sanitation facilities
  • Varied diet.
  • Elimination of smoke.
  • Waste recycling structures
  • Prevention against mosquitoes, flies and vermin.
  • Nursing structures.
  • Bicycle ambulance service.
  • Distribution of medicines.
goal 6 combat hiv aids malaria and other diseases
Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases.
  • Target 07 : Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
  • Sub-target 18 : HIV prevalence among 15-24 year-old pregnant women (UNAIDS)
  • Sub-target 19 : Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate and population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, UNICEF, UN Population Division, WHO)
  • Sub-target 20 : Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years.
  • Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
  • Sub-target 21 : Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO).
  • Sub-target22 : Proportion of Population in Malaria Risk areas using Effective Malaria Prevention and Treatment measures. (UNICEF).
  • Sub-target 23 : Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO)
  • Sub-target 24 : Proportion of Tuberculosis Cases detected and Cured under Directly-Observed Treatment Short Courses (WHO)
goal 6 combat hiv aids malaria and other diseases1
Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and otherdiseases.
  • Target 07 : Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
  • Better not to be younger than 15 and older than 24 !
  • Prevention and cure.
  • Hygiene education courses for women and in schools.
  • Generic nursing facilities.
  • Reaching males above school-leaving age.
  • Care for and schooling of orphans.
  • Social security network.
  • Cooperative purchasing groups.
goal 6 combat hiv aids malaria and other diseases2
Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and otherdiseases.

Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

  • Sub-target 21 : Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO).
  • Sub-target 22 : Proportion of Population in Malaria Risk areas using Effective Malaria Prevention and Treatment measures. (UNICEF).
  • Sub-target 23 : Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO).
  • Sub-target 24 : Proportion of Tuberculosis Cases detected and Cured under Directly-Observed Treatment Short Courses (WHO)
goal 6 combat hiv aids malaria and other diseases3
Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and otherdiseases.

Target 08 : Halt and begin to reverse the incidence

of malaria and other major diseases

  • Prevention, cure and integrated development.
  • Hygiene education courses for women and in schools.
  • Preventive measures taken against malaria (NOT vaccinations).
  • Water, sanitation, drainage, 100% waste recycling.
  • Locally made mosquito nets, fly-catchers.
  • Generic local nursing facilities available for distribution of medicines.
  • Project structures facilitate public campaigns.
goal 7 ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability.
  • Target 09 : : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources.
  • Sub-target 25 :Forested land as a percentage of land area (FAO)
  • Sub-target 26 :Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area (UNEP)
  • Sub-target 27 : Energy supply (apparent consumption: kg oil equivalent) per $ 1.000 (PPP) GDP (World Bank)
  • Sub-target 28 : Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone depleting CFCs (ODP tons)
  • Sub-target 29 : Proportion of the population using solid fuels.
  • Target 10 : Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.
  • Sub-target 30 : Proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source (WHO/UNICEF)
  • Sub-target 31 :Proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation (WHO/UNICEF)
  • Target 11 : Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020.
goal 7 ensure environmental sustainability1
Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability.
  • Target 09 : : Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources.
  • Project 100% ecological.
  • Use of local money systems fundamental to projects.
  • Energy consumption as indicator of quality of life (sub-target 27).
  • Use of high-efficiency cookers and locally produced mini-briquettes.
  • Kyoto Treaty and CO2 reduction : In theory Euro 450.000 per year per project.
  • Local energy for local consumption.
  • Down with kerosene and batteries !
  • Numerous widespread renewable energy applications.
  • Natural parks and reserves.
  • Plant nurseries.
  • Seed-banks.
  • Protection of bio-diversity.
  • Reforestation and tree-planting.
  • Complete waste recycling system.
  • Local products for local consumption.
  • Use of CFCs – chlorofluorocarbons in the project area.
goal 7 ensure environmental sustainability2
Goal 7 : Ensure environmental sustainability.
  • Target 10 : Reduce by half the proportion of people

without sustainable access to safe drinking water.

  • By half indeed. How silly can you be?
  • Plenty of clean drinking water for all, without exceptions.
  • Local water points (usually 200) at tank commission level.
  • Back-up at well-heads (usually 35).
  • Rain-water harvesting at 10.000 homes.
  • Recycling of urine and grey water at household level.
  • Complete ecological sanitation system for all (10.000 houses).
  • Ecological sanitation in schools, clinics and public places.
  • 100% recycling of waste products at the lowest possible level.
  • Project concepts apply fully to slums.
  • Preference for pilot projects in rural areas.
  • First stop migration from rural areas to towns.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally.
  • Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction.
  • Target 14 : Address the special needs of the landlocked countries and small island states.
  • Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable over the long term.
  • Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.
  • Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
  • Target 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development1
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • The real meaning of goal 8 (sub-targets 12-18).
  • Named sub-targets (1):
  • Official development assistance
  • 32. Net ODA as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national product (targets of 0.7% in total and 0.15% for LDCs)
  • 33. Proportion of ODA to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
  • 34. Proportion of ODA that is untied
  • 35. Proportion of ODA for environment in small island developing States
  • 36. Proportion of ODA for transport sector in landlocked countries
  • Market access
  • 37. Proportion of exports (by value and excluding arms) admitted free of duties and quotas
  • 38. Average tariffs and quotas on agricultural products and textiles and clothing
  • 39. Domestic and export agricultural subsidies in OECD countries
  • 40. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development2
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • The real meaning of goal 8 (sub-targets 12-18).
  • Named sub-targets (2):
  • Debt sustainability
  • 41. Proportion of official bilateral HIPC debt cancelled
  • 42. Total Number of Countries that Have Reached their HIPC Decision Points and Number that Have Reached their Completion Points (Cumulative) (HIPC) (World Bank-IMF)
  • 43. Debt Service as a Percentage of Exports of Goods and Services (World Bank)
  • 44. Debt Relief Committed Under HIPC Initiative (HIPC) (World Bank-IMF)
  • 45. Unemployment of 15-24 year-olds, Each Sex and Total (ILO)
  • 46. Proportion of Population with Access to Affordable, Essential Drugs on a Sustainable Basis (WHO)
  • 47. Telephone Lines and Cellular Subscribers per 100 Population (ITU)
  • 48. Personal Computers in Use and Internet Users per 100 Population (ITU)
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development3
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally.
  • Take your guess at what the target might mean.
  • Democratic project structures run by the people.
  • Inbuilt social security system guarantees participation for all.
  • Local money system gives purchasing power to all.
  • Interest-free, cost-free cooperative micro-credit system for productivity development.
  • Role of women.
  • Relations with other project areas and local money systems.
  • Formal currency relations in the host country.
  • Formal import-export relations.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development4
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction.
  • Project is about LOCAL development.
  • Cooperative, interest-free, inflation-free local economic environment.
  • Patchwork-quilt of local economic environments.
  • Relations between local economic environments.
  • Regional and national plans costs 2.5 Euro-cents per inhabitant.
  • Formal money initial capital requirement Euro 75 per person.
  • Euro 75.000.000 for each million people.
  • Euro 150.000.000.000 for the poorest 2 billion people.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development5
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction.
  • Euro 150.000.000.000 for the poorest 2 billion people. That is
  • approximately four times the INCREASE in the 2002 United States defence budget authorised by Congress
  • the cost of six months’ war in Iraq
  • the current expected purchase price of 850 Joint Strike Fighters
  • three months’ trade deficit of the United States (US$ 60.000.000.000 per month)
  • half of the annual agricultural subsidies paid to western and northern farmers in 2001 (US$ 350.000.000.000)
  • just twice the outgo of OECD donor countries for development aid in 2006, including debt relief (US$ 103.900.000.000)
  • just 6% of the money (US$ 2.300.000.000.000) spent by donor countries on development aid over the last 50 years
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development6
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Sub-target 14 : Address the special needs of the landlocked countries and small island states.
  • Model concepts apply without modification to landlocked countries, small island states, poor urban areas, including poor rural and urban areas in industrialised countries.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development7
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable over the long term.
  • Interest-bearing debt is by definition not sustainable as it necessarily causes financial leakage from poor areas to rich ones.
  • Financial leakage one of the main causes of poverty.
  • Purpose : to create a good quality of life for everyone in each project area.
  • "Money is not the key that opens the gates of the market but the bolt that bars them". Gesell Silvio, The Natural Economic Order, revised English edition, Peter Owen, London 1958, page 228.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development8
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.
  • What about the rest of us?
  • Sweat shops, poisons, monoculture, child labour, exploitation of women and slavery.
  • Each project area provides for direct creation of at least 4000 jobs (for 10% of the adult population)
  • Full employment for all in each project area.
  • Local production initiatives at individual, family or cooperative level supported by project.
  • Employer-employee relations are free in the formal money sphere but not supported by the project.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development9
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
  • Interests of pharmaceuticals multinationals.
  • Medicines as a holy cow of development.
  • Medicines and financial leakage.
  • Aid funds spent on medicines contribute (very) little to local economic development in poor countries.
  • Eradication at origin of causes of disease.
  • Much can be done locally with little or no formal money cost.
  • Local cooperative purchasing within project structures.
goal 8 develop a global partnership for development10
Goal 8 : Develop a global partnership for development.
  • Target 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.
  • Interests of elites in industrialised and developing countries.
  • More holy cows.
  • Centralisation of structures.
  • Financial leakage from poor areas.
  • Careful choice of applications needed.
  • Local radio station.
  • Radio-telephones, pigeons, messengers, bongos and smoke signals.
why it is so easy to monitor project results
Why it is so easy to monitor project results .
  • Each project covers a small surface area.
  • Structures the same throughout the project area.
  • Structures serve all inhabitants without selection or exclusion.
  • Most structures are visible and materially verifiable.
  • Statistical data available from standard day-to-day registration of activities.
  • Available data mostly valid in real time.
some inherent limitations of the millennium goals
Some inherent limitations of the Millennium goals
  • Compromises on compromises on compromises……..
  • Half-pies in the sky.

Eradicate “extreme” poverty and hunger.

The tale of the 50%.

Too bad, you must belong to the other 50%.

  • Lots of private parts:

Section 60 of the Plan of implementation :“(a) Provide access to

potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation

and waste management at the household level through initiatives to

encourage public and private investment in water supply and

sanitation ……while respecting local conditions involving all

concerned stakeholders……”

Search for the key development words:

“interest”, “monoculture”, “local economies”, “micro-economic” “local

production” “financial leakage.

inherent limitations
Inherent limitations
  • This is article 83 of the Implementation Plan:
  • “83. In our common pursuit of growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development, a critical challenge is to ensure the necessary internal conditions for mobilizing domestic savings, both public and private, sustaining adequate levels of productive investment and increasing human capacity. A crucial task is to enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies. An enabling domestic environment is vital for mobilizing domestic resources, increasing productivity, reducing capital flight, encouraging the private sector and attracting and making effective use of international investment and assistance. Efforts to create such an environment should be supported by the international community.”
  • WHAT DO YOU THINK THIS MIGHT MEAN?
inherent limitations1
Inherent limitations
  • About article 83 of the Implementation Plan:
  • DRAW YOUR OWN CONCLUSIONS.
  • Which conditions are necessary to mobilise “public and private domestic savings” ?
  • How and by whom are they to be “mobilised” ?
  • “Sustain adequate levels of productive investment”.
  • Investment by whom? Productive in which way?
  • “Productive investment” is “crucial” “to enhance the efficiacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies”.
  • Which policies? Which criteria are to be followed to make them “efficient, coherent and consistent.” ?
  • An “enabling domestic environment” is said to be one that encourages the private sector, and makes effective use of “international investment and assistance”.
  • The international community’s job is to make sure that suitable “enabling domestic environments” are created.
slide36

NGO STICHTING BAKENS VERZET (“ANOTHER WAY”)NETHERLANDSMODEL FOR SELF-FINANCING, ECOLOGICAL, SUSTAINABLE, LOCAL INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTSSchoener 50,1771 ED WieringerwerfNetherlands.Tel. 0031-(0)227-604128Website : www.flowman.nl