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Cycles of the Earth. Ch 18 Trefil & Hazen The Sciences. All Matter above and beneath the Earth’s surface moves in cycles. Sun radiates heat down on the ocean of air and water. Earth’s hot core or geothermal energy spreads upward . What drives the earth cycles? .

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cycles of the earth

Cycles of the Earth

Ch 18 Trefil & Hazen

The Sciences

what drives the earth cycles
Sun radiates heat down on the ocean of air and water

Earth’s hot core or geothermal energy spreads upward

What drives the earth cycles?
water cycle constantly transfers the world s water between three basic storage reservoirs
Water cycle constantly transfers the world’s water between three basic storage reservoirs.
  • Oceans contain 97% of Earth’s water
  • Of the 3% of the Earth’s freshwater:
    • 2.15% is locked away in glaciers and ice sheets
    • 0.62% is groundwater, stored as soil moisture
    • 0.009% is in rivers and lakes
    • 0.001% is in the atmosphere
slide6
Amazingly, the whole shebang of water in lakes & rivers, water in rain & snow, water in our bathtub, shower, and drink bottles, amounts to only about 1% of the water in the world.
the water hydrologic cycle
The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle
  • p. 442
  • Ocean to Atmosphere
    • 84% vapor from oceans; 16% from continents
  • Atmosphere to Surface
    • Vapor cools, condenses & precipitates out in a week, or few hours or few centuries; depends.
    • 77% precipitation falls on the oceans
  • Surface to Ocean
    • 23% of precipitation in water cycle meets our needs via “surface water” and “ground water.”
major steps in the water cycle
Major steps in the water cycle:
  • Ocean to Atmosphere
  • Atmosphere to Surface
  • Surface to Ocean
how do the different types of precipitation form
How do the different types of precipitation form?
  • Rain--Vapor condenses around aerosols and falls from sky.
how do the different types of precipitation form11
How do the different types of precipitation form?
  • Snow—ice crystals that assemble themselves as they fall through a cloud
how do the different types of precipitation form12
How do the different types of precipitation form?
  • Hail--large frozen rain formed in a giant cloud of an intense thunderstorm.
how do the different types of precipitation form13
How do the different types of precipitation form?
  • Sleet--falling snow may partially melt and then refreeze into a frozen raindrop.
explaining ocean motion p 441
Explaining ocean motion: p. 441
  • Great currents move the ocean, distributing heat and regulating climate across Earth.
  • General scheme
    • Warm equatorial water swirls pole-ward and circulates in vast ocean areas.
    • Cool water moves around the poles and flows toward equator as continents allow passage.
atmospheric convection on the rotating earth p 452
Atmospheric Convection on the Rotating Earthp. 452

Trade Winds: easterlies at equator

In the tropics, winds prevail from E to W.

Air warmed new equator travels pole-ward but gradually cools and sinks. Earth’s rotation deflects surface winds

atmospheric convection on the rotating earth p 45221
Atmospheric Convection on the Rotating Earthp. 452

Polar Easterlies:

In the polar regions, cold dense air sinks and moves away from poles.

Earth’s rotation deflects surface wind from East to West.

atmospheric convection on the rotating earth p 45222
Atmospheric Convection on the Rotating Earthp. 452

Westerlies

Near 30o N & S latitude, Earth’s rotation moves air from West to East, as warm air moves to poles.

rocks
Rocks
  • Igneous = formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma (melted rock)
  • Sedimentary = formed from accumulation of weathered material (sediments)
  • Metamorphic = formed from preexisting rocks that have been transformed (changed)
igneous sedimentary metamorphic
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

ü    Each type of rock records a different complex past.

ü    Each type of rock can be changed from one form to another and back again.

 geologists call these transformations the “rock cycle”

slide28
Ch 18 pp. 464-465.

Try Discussion Questions 1-7,

And visit links on pacing guide:

Hydrologic cycle

Atmospheric cycle

Rock cycle