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Earth Cycles and Ladder of Life. Rock Cycle. Total mineral oxide mass not changing in quantity but only in distribution Subduction and Volcanism Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Devil’s Tower Mount Fuji. Water Cycle.

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rock cycle
Rock Cycle
  • Total mineral oxide mass not changing in quantity but only in distribution
  • Subduction and Volcanism
  • Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic
  • Devil’s Tower
  • Mount Fuji
water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Amount of water not really changing but continually moving from rivers, oceans, and lakes to air and clouds
oceans and glaciers
Oceans and Glaciers
  • Most of planet (75%) is covered by salt water oceans
  • Glaciers (mostly Antarctica) tie up about 2-5% of total water, and 75% of all fresh (low salt content) water
  • Continent at pole makes for larger ice caps
  • Glaciers change ocean water level
building blocks of life
Building Blocks of Life
  • Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Sulfur
  • Carbon = 4 bonds
  • Nitrogen, Phosphorus = 3 bonds
  • Oxygen, Sulfur = 2 bonds
  • Hydrogen = 1 bond
why these elements
Why these Elements?
  • Carbon can form long chains with a nearly infinite variety of isomers
  • Consider Pentane (C5H12)
multiple bonds
Multiple Bonds
  • All of the elements of life (except hydrogen) may form double or even triple bonds
hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen Bonding
  • Other than covalent bonding, the potential for hydrogen bonding is critical for biochemistry!
  • Gives structure to water and biology!
molecular shape matters
Molecular Shape Matters!
  • Enzymes provide lock and key kind of fit
  • Specific to one molecule type
  • Cause specific chemical event to occur
major classes of biomolecules
Major Classes of Biomolecules
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Lipids
  • Carbohydrates
protein structure
Protein Structure
  • Long chains of amino acids joined by peptide bond
types of amino acids
Types of Amino Acids
  • Only 20 commonly occur in nature!
  • Polar
  • Nonpolar
  • Acidic
  • Basic
secondary structure
Secondary Structure
  • Helices and sheets (Pauling)
  • Protein fold according to energy of interactions
functions of proteins
Functions of Proteins
  • Catalyze/perform chemical reactions (enzymes)
  • Act as triggers
  • Act as structural building blocks (muscle/hair)
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Formula (CH2O)n
  • Glucose
  • Ribose
  • Photosynthesis
carbohydrates16
Carbohydrates
  • Two sugars form Lactose, Sucrose and other food sugars
  • Polysaccharides (cell walls in plants as cellulose, starch as food, amylose/glycogen as energy storage)
nucleic acid
Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleotide (phosphate + deoxyribose + base)
base pairing
Base Pairing
  • DNA uses GCTA
  • RNA uses GCUA
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • DNA and RNA
  • Double helix structure (DNA)
  • Protein like structures (RNA)