Earth cycles and ladder of life
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Earth Cycles and Ladder of Life. Rock Cycle. Total mineral oxide mass not changing in quantity but only in distribution Subduction and Volcanism Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic Devil’s Tower Mount Fuji. Water Cycle.

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Rock cycle l.jpg
Rock Cycle

  • Total mineral oxide mass not changing in quantity but only in distribution

  • Subduction and Volcanism

  • Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic

  • Devil’s Tower

  • Mount Fuji


Water cycle l.jpg
Water Cycle

  • Amount of water not really changing but continually moving from rivers, oceans, and lakes to air and clouds


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Oceans and Glaciers

  • Most of planet (75%) is covered by salt water oceans

  • Glaciers (mostly Antarctica) tie up about 2-5% of total water, and 75% of all fresh (low salt content) water

  • Continent at pole makes for larger ice caps

  • Glaciers change ocean water level


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Building Blocks of Life

  • Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Sulfur

  • Carbon = 4 bonds

  • Nitrogen, Phosphorus = 3 bonds

  • Oxygen, Sulfur = 2 bonds

  • Hydrogen = 1 bond


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Why these Elements?

  • Carbon can form long chains with a nearly infinite variety of isomers

  • Consider Pentane (C5H12)


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Multiple Bonds

  • All of the elements of life (except hydrogen) may form double or even triple bonds


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Hydrogen Bonding

  • Other than covalent bonding, the potential for hydrogen bonding is critical for biochemistry!

  • Gives structure to water and biology!


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Molecular Shape Matters!

  • Enzymes provide lock and key kind of fit

  • Specific to one molecule type

  • Cause specific chemical event to occur


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Major Classes of Biomolecules

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

  • Lipids

  • Carbohydrates


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Protein Structure

  • Long chains of amino acids joined by peptide bond


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Types of Amino Acids

  • Only 20 commonly occur in nature!

  • Polar

  • Nonpolar

  • Acidic

  • Basic


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Secondary Structure

  • Helices and sheets (Pauling)

  • Protein fold according to energy of interactions


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Functions of Proteins

  • Catalyze/perform chemical reactions (enzymes)

  • Act as triggers

  • Act as structural building blocks (muscle/hair)


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Carbohydrates

  • Formula (CH2O)n

  • Glucose

  • Ribose

  • Photosynthesis


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Carbohydrates

  • Two sugars form Lactose, Sucrose and other food sugars

  • Polysaccharides (cell walls in plants as cellulose, starch as food, amylose/glycogen as energy storage)


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Nucleic Acid

  • Nucleotide (phosphate + deoxyribose + base)


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Base Pairing

  • DNA uses GCTA

  • RNA uses GCUA


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Nucleic Acids

  • DNA and RNA

  • Double helix structure (DNA)

  • Protein like structures (RNA)


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