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Dept. of Biomedical Engineering 2003200449 YOUNHO HONG. Flow and Volume of Blood. Contents. Cardiac Output - Fick - Indicator Dilution - Thermo Dilution Electromagnetic flow meter Ultrasound flow meter - Transit time - Continuous Doppla

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contents
Contents
  • Cardiac Output - Fick

- Indicator Dilution

- Thermo Dilution

  • Electromagnetic flow meter
  • Ultrasound flow meter - Transit time

- Continuous Doppla

- Pulsed Doppla

- Thermal Convection

  • Plethysmography
indicator dilution and fick method
Indicator Dilution and Fick Method

# Indicator Dilution

F : flow

C : concentration

The unit of blood flow : l/min or ml/s

Fi

Ci

Fo

Co

(infusion rate)

The quantity of in and out is the same,

and there is no leakage.

Mass Balance Equation

# Fick

: O2 consumption, L/min ( measured by spirometer)

Co = Ca : concentration in artery

Ci = Cv : concentration in vein

indicator dilution dye dilution method
Indicator Dilution ( Dye dilution Method)

indicator dilution curve

c(t)

Use Cardio green or

Indocyannine green for a dye.

recirculation

bolus

injection

t

T

Extrapolation

thermo dilution
Thermo-dilution

Use cold saline(4˚C)

c(t)

T

bolus

injection

t

ultra sound
Ultra Sound

Primary echo is bigger than

secondary echo.

ultra-sound generator

skin

t

transit time flowmeter
Transit time flowmeter

velocity of ultra sound

(1) down-stream

c

μ

θ

D

velocity of RBC, WBC

and platelit

(2) up-stream

doppler flowmeter
Doppler flowmeter

(1) Continuous Doppler flowmeter

(cf) Radar system

object

fo, c

u

f+fd, c

(2) Pulsed Doppler flowmeter

t

f

T

u1

u2

fd1

fd3

fd1

u3

u2

x

u1

fd2

fd2

thermal convection flowmeter
Thermal convection flowmeter

Thermister

F

Invasive, probe positioning is difficult.

The stronger F gets, The sharper the temperature of T2

is decreased.

T2

  • Bios current => Thermister heating
  • T2 Thermister is cooled by thermal convection.

(cf.) respiratory monitoring by thermister

Temp. of inspiration is 25˚C.

Temp. of expiration is 36.5˚C.

plethysmography
Plethysmography

i

cuff

leg

V

toes

open artery

close vein

Z(V)

normal

slope

= flow(in artery)

Venous

Thrombosis

slope

= flow(in vein)

cuff

cuff

off

t

respiratory system
Respiratory System

# Architecture

velocity

uT

AT

[l/min or ml/s]

Tracher

Bronchas

Alveoli

air flow

cross-sectional area

The total of volume flow is not changed.

velocity of the air

at alveoli is almost zero.

uA

AA

# Respiration

# Physiological functions

- Ventilatory mechanics

=> RC equivalent circuit model

- Gas transport

=> Mass balance equation

(Diffusion process)

  • O2 transport into blood stream
  • CO2 removal from blood stream
  • Homeostasis of PH, PO2, PCO2
pressure measurement
Pressure measurement

(1) Differential pressure transducer

diaphragm

P1

P2

diaphragm

strain gage

(2) Balloon Sensor

0V : switch on => P>Pi

5V : switch off => P<Pi

+5V

metal switch

hole

Vi

MP

P

pressure

sensor

ballon

gas

P

Pi

control

air

pump

pressure

(Pi)

flow measurement
Flow measurement
  • Rotating vane
  • Ultrasound flowmeter
  • Thermal convection
  • Pneumotachometer

# Pneumotachometer

P1

P2

Q

(flow)

mouth

measurement

resistance

mesh screen

volume measurement
Volume measurement

(1) Water spirometer

single turn potentimeter

air

pen

water

vital capacity

TLC

IC

Vc

CO2

absorber

TV

FRV

mouth

ERC

mouth

Rv

(2) Dry spirometer

expiratory

gas (empty)

change the position of

the pistol during breathing.

inspiration

gas

pistol

valve

frc measurnment
FRC measurnment
  • He Dilution technique
  • - Patient at FRC
  • - Prepare a spirometer of volume Vsp and imitial He
  • Concentration of FIHe
  • - Patient breaths Fb the spirometer
  • - Find He concentration of expiratory gas FIHe
frc measurnment1
FRC measurnment
  • N2 washout technique
  • - Patient at FRC
  • - Prepare a spirometer with O2, Vsp
  • - Patient breaths to the spirometer
  • - Measure N2 concentration in the expiratory gas
gas concentration measurement
Gas concentration measurement
  • Mass spectroscophy
  • Gas chromatography
  • Infrared spectroscophy
  • Ramen spectroscophy
  • Emission spectroscophy
  • Paramagnetic O2 analyzer
gas transport measurement
Gas transport measurement
  • Gas distribution test
  • => single breath N2 washout
  • - RC => TLC O2 inspiration
  • - pause (hold breath)
  • - Expiration and measure FN2

(2) Diffusion test

=> CO diffusion capacity

- Inspire CO, He in the air to TLC from RC

- Hold breath for 10sec

- Expire to measure FFCO and FFHE