CANADA’S LANDFORM REGIONS. Canada’s Landform Regions. Canada is made up of 3 distinct types of landforms: Shield Lowlands Highlands The Lowlands and Highlands are further subdivided into regions. Landform #1:. Shield. The Canadian Shield. Location:. The Canadian Shield. Background:
Canada’s Landform Regions Canada is made up of 3 distinct types of landforms: • Shield • Lowlands • Highlands The Lowlands and Highlands are further subdivided into regions.
Landform #1: Shield
The Canadian Shield Location:
The Canadian Shield Background: • Geologic foundation of Canada • Underlies much of Canada and 2 small parts of the US • More than half of Canada (4.8 million km2) is covered by shield. • Contains some of the world’s oldest rock near Great Slave Lake in NWT (3.96 billion years old) and in Quebec (approx. 4 billion years old)
The Canadian Shield Appearance/Landscape: • Rounded hills of rock that are the root of ancient mountains • Eroding for billions of years • Relatively flat compared to other mountains • Thousands of lakes – created by glaciers that scraped the bedrock
Rounded Hills Smooth, Round Rock Thousands of Lakes
The Canadian Shield Features: • Formed by two types of rock: igneous and metamorphic • Contains many of Canada’s metallic minerals: lead, gold, copper, nickel, zinc • Diamond deposits have recently been found • No fossil fuels – Life forms that produced these products did not exist when the Shield was created.
The Canadian Shield Industries: • Mining • Not a lot of farming – thin soil • Recreation/Tourism – scenic rivers, waterfalls, forests, nature activities • Hydroelectricity
Mining in Sudbury Recreation/Tourism
Landform #2: Lowlands
Interior Plains Location:
Interior Plains Background: • Part of Great Plains of North America – stretch from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico • Covers a distance of 2700 km from 49oN to the Arctic Ocean – 1300 km wide in the South but only 275 km wide in the North. • During the formation, the Interior Plains were often covered by low inland seas. As sediments from the Shield and the Rocky Mountains settled in the sea, eventually they compacted and made sedimentary rock.
Interior Plains Appearance/Landscape: • Not as flat as people think... • Mostly rolling hills and deep wide river valleys • Land slopes downward gradually from west to east • 3 levels of elevation in the Prairies – each separated by escarpment • A few lakes in Manitoba
Rolling Hills Escarpment River near Calgary
Interior Plains Features: • Subjected to glaciation • Landscape shaped by the forces of erosion – specifically, differential erosion.
Interior Plains Industries: • Oil and Gas – When the seas were replaced by rock, the rock trapped the sea reefs which now contain much of the oil and gas found today in Alberta and Saskatchewan. • Mining • Agriculture – especially wheat and cattle
Alberta Oil Sands Saskatchewan Wheat Fields
Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Lowlands Location:
Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Lowlands Background: • 2 parts: Great Lakes Lowlands and St. Lawrence Lowlands • Separated by a thin wedge of Canadian Shield • Bedrock formed of sedimentary rock which can be seen in some escarpments – ie. Niagara • Formed by a rift valley
Niagara Escarpment Layers of Sedimentary Rock
Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Lowlands Appearance/Landscape: • Great Lakes – rolling landscape from glaciers “dumping” soils/sands as they moved through the region • Flat plains, glacial hills, deep river valleys
Hills, lakes, escarpment River valley
Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Lowlands Features: • Most densely populated region in Canada • About 50% of Canada’s population lives here and the region only cover 1.4% of Canada’s total area.
Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Lowlands Industries: • Agriculture – excellent soils and warm climate • Manufacturing
Steel Plant in Hamilton The Holland Marsh in King City
Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands Location:
Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands Background: • Hudson Bay – the bay used to cover this area. It left behind sand, silt, and clay that became sedimentary rock • Arctic – a series of islands in Canada’s far north
Hudson Bay Lowlands Arctic Lowlands
Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands Appearance/Landscape: Hudson Bay – flat, low, swampy forests Arctic – gently rolling landscape
Hudson Bay Swampy Forests Arctic Rolling Landscapes
Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands Features: • Hudson Bay – layers of sedimentary rock rest on top of the Shield • Arctic – harsh climate, frozen grounds not good for farming
Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands Industries: • Arctic – coal (lignite), oil, natural gas deposits
Landform #3 Highlands
Appalachian Mountains Location:
Appalachian Mountains Background: • Stretch from Georgia in the Southern US to Newfoundland • Oldest highland in North America (300 million years old) • Formed when N. American collided with Europe and N. Africa during formation of Pangaea.
Appalachian Mountains Appearance/Landscape: • Rounded/rolling mountains and hills • Plateaus of igneous and metamorphic rock • Wide glacial valleys separate hills and mountains • “Drowned Coastline” – long, deep bays formed by glaciers that sank the land when the ice melted
Appalachian Mountains Features: • Non-metallic minerals – like coal • Igneous and metamorphic rock from past volcanic activity
Appalachian Mountains Industry: • Fishing • Some mining
Innuitian Mountains Location:
Innuitian Mountains Background: • Located in Canada’s far north • Mountains formed in middle of Mesozoic era • Younger than the Appalachians
Innuitian Mountains Appearance/Landscape: • Mountains measure over 2500m high • No vegetation because of cold climate • Vast areas covered by ice and permanent snow