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Centralization of Power and the New Monarchs. European Politics in the 15 th and 16 th Centuries. Growth of Central Governments . Rise of “New Monarchs in France, Spain and England leads to centralization of political power.

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Centralization of power and the new monarchs

Centralization of Power and the New Monarchs

European Politics in the 15th and 16th Centuries

Growth of central governments
Growth of Central Governments

  • Rise of “New Monarchs in France, Spain and England leads to centralization of political power.

  • Economic and Social changes reflected in the growing power of governments.

  • Rulers encouraged trade, overseas expansion, to obtain taxes and revenues to further increase their power.

Valois france
Valois France

  • France is devastated by the effects of the Hundred Years War

  • Louis XI (r. 1461-1483) consolidates power.

    • Makes war and kills the Duke of Burgundy, making the province under French control

    • Used diplomacy to gain further lands (earns him the nickname “the Spider”)

    • Charles VIII becomes involved the Italian Wars.

Valois france gov t power
Valois France – Gov’t Power

  • System of Taxation put into place

  • Francis I gains control over the church; right to appoint bishops.

  • Legalization of the sale of offices (provided revenue)

  • Streamlined government procedures and efficiency.

United spain
United Spain

  • The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Sicily and Isabella of Castile united the Kingdom of Spain the 1479 after 10 years of civil war with nobles who opposed it.

  • Worked to reduce the power of nobles in the court, favored the lesser nobility (hidalgo)

  • Gained control over military orders

United spain1
United Spain

  • Monarchy gained right to make appointments of bishops.

  • Direct supervision over the judicial system

  • Direct collection of taxes and other revenues

  • Religious zeal and the desire to drive the remaining Muslims from Spain.

  • Establishment and control of the Inquisition.

United spain charles v
United Spain – Charles V

  • Charles V (grandson of F & I) held the throne of Spain (and he overseas territories) and the throne of the HRE.

  • Reoccurring crises kept Charles involved in the politics of the HRE and away from Spain.

  • He faced financial difficulties – only saved by New World treasure.

  • Little changed in Spanish administration, but the New World empire continued to expand.

Tudor england
Tudor England

  • Monarch’s power was balanced by Parliament and Common Law; allowed for uniformity across the land

  • Henry VII (1485-1509) reestablishes royal control after the Wars of the Roses

    • Financial independence for the monarchy

    • Increase the power of Justices of the Peace.

    • Increase power and influence of royal council (the Star Chamber).

Tudor england1
Tudor England

  • Henry VIII

    • Used Reformation Parliament to increase power of the king (while Parliament’s prestige increased as well.)

    • Royal power increased through the leadership of Thomas Cromwell and the Privy Council

    • Royal income rose with the appropriation of church fees and possession; selling of church lands to new landowners.

Tudor england2
Tudor England

  • Edward VI

    • Being a minor, the nobility attempted to take back more power.

  • Mary I

    • In attempt to reestablish Catholicism, provoked revolts.

  • Elizabeth I

    • Despite the political mistakes of her predecessors, Elizabeth made use of royal power established by her father and grandfather

Fragmented states
Fragmented States

  • Holy Roman Empire – elected nature of emperor, strong princes, multi-ethnic.

  • Italy – political fragmentation; papacy

  • Hungary – nobles reassert control; multiethnic empire.

  • Poland – elected and weak king, strong Diet dominated by nobles.

  • Ottoman Empire – multiethnic and multi-religious empire.