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Table of Contents. The Plant Kingdom Photosynthesis and Light Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails. - The Plant Kingdom. What Is a Plant?. Nearly all plants are autotrophs-produce their own food. All plants are eukaryotes contain many cells

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table of contents
Table of Contents

The Plant Kingdom

Photosynthesis and Light

Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts

Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

what is a plant

- The Plant Kingdom

What Is a Plant?

Nearly all plants are autotrophs-produce their own food.

All plants are eukaryotes

contain many cells

all plant cells are surrounded by cell walls.

adaptations for living on land
Adaptations for living on land
  • Obtaining water and other nutrients
  • Retaining water- cuticle/ reduce water loss
  • Transporting materials-vascular tissue/ tubelike structures- carry food, water, minerals
  • Support
  • Reproduction –zygot / fertilized egg
classifying plants

- The Plant Kingdom

Classifying plants

Nonvascular- don’t have a system of tubes/ low growing, do not have roots

Vascular –have vascular tissue/ tall

Origin of plants- green algae

complex life cycles

- The Plant Kingdom

Complex Life Cycles

Plants have complex life cycles that include two different stages:

Sporophyte- plant produces spores

Gametophyte- plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cell and egg cell.

water loss in plants

- The Plant Kingdom

Water Loss in Plants

The graph shows how much water a certain plant loses during the hours shown.

water loss in plants1
Horizontal axis–time of day; vertical axis–water loss.

Reading Graphs:

What variable is plotted along each axis?

- The Plant Kingdom

Water Loss in Plants
water loss in plants2
Most–midday; least–in the evening.

Interpreting Data:

According to the graph, during what part of the day did the plant lose the most water? The least water?

- The Plant Kingdom

Water Loss in Plants
water loss in plants3
The plant seemed to lose the most water during the sunniest or warmest parts of the day.

Drawing Conclusions:

What could account for the pattern of water loss shown?

- The Plant Kingdom

Water Loss in Plants
water loss in plants4
The line graph would descend during the night and then rise again in the morning hours, because the water loss is less during the night when there is no sun.


How would you expect the graph to look from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.? Explain your reasoning.

- The Plant Kingdom

Water Loss in Plants
building vocabulary

Key Terms:

Key Terms:

Key Terms:




nonvascular plant




vascular tissue

vascular plant




- The Plant Kingdom

Building Vocabulary

A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words.

Key Terms:



Plants that lack a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials are known as nonvascular plants.

Sunlight provides the energy for this food-making process, called photosynthesis.

One adaptation that helps a plant reduce water loss is a waxy, waterproof layer called the cuticle, which covers the leaves of most plants.

In the sporophyte stage, the plant produces spores, tiny cells that can grow into new organisms.


No matter how large or small a plant is, its cells are organized into tissues—groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism.

In the gametophyte stage, the plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cells and egg cells.

Vascular tissue is a system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, andfood move.

Plants with true vascular tissue are called vascular plants.


Chloroplasts, which look something like green jelly beans, are the structures in which food is made.

Biologists studied a green pigment called chlorophyll, found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.

Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell.


A vacuole is a large storage sac that can expand and shrink like a balloon.

A fertilized egg is called a zygote.

the photosynthesis process

- Photosynthesis and Light

The Photosynthesis Process
  • The roots of plants take in water and nutrients and send it to the leaves.
  • Leaves take in carbon dioxide.
  • The combination of carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. Glucose (sugar) is made and the plant gives off oxygen.

Carbon Dioxide + Water oxygen + glucose

previewing visuals

- Photosynthesis and Light

Previewing Visuals

Preview Figure 9. Then write three questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.

Water Vascular System

Q. How is sunlight involved in photosynthesis?

A. The energy in sunlight is used to make sugar.

Q. Why does a plant need sugar?

A. The plant uses energy from the sugar to carry out life functions.

Q. How does the plant use the water its roots take in?

A. Water molecules combine with carbon dioxide to form sugar and oxygen during photosynthesis

identifying main ideas

- Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts

Identifying Main Ideas

Nonvascular plants

Live in moist area

Absorb water and nutrients directly from the environment

Thin Cell Walls


Main Idea








- Plants Without Seeds: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts

  • A moss gametophyte is low-growing and has structures that look like roots, stems, and leaves.
  • The sporophyte generation grows out of the gametophyte.
  • The rhizoids anchor the moss and absorbs water and nutrients from the soil.
mosses liverworts and hornworts
Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts

Sphagnum moss grows in a wetland called bogs.

Peat moss is formed in acidic bogs where dead material does not decay because decomposers can’t live in acidic water.

  • The dead material builds up and is compressed into peat, which is used as a fuel.



  • More than 8,ooo species
  • Grow as a thick crust on moist rock or soil
  • The body of the liverwort looks like a human liver.



  • Fewer than 100 species
  • Live in moist soil often mixed with grass plants
  • Grow hornlike structures called sporophytes.
characteristics of seedless vascular plants

- Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants

Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails share two characteristics:

  • they have true vascular tissue: a system of tubelike structures inside a plant that water, minerals, and food move through
  • they do NOT produce seeds
  • Live in moist surroundings so sperm can swim to eggs and reproduce by releasing spores
  • grow quite tall because of their strong, vascular tissue transports material throughout the plant and gives it structure.

- Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

  • Most ferns have underground stems and to roots.
  • Fronds- fern leaves that grow above ground.
  • The upper surface of the frond is coated with a cuticle which helps preserve water.
  • Spores develop in tiny spore cases on the underside of the frond.
  • When spores are released, wind and water carry them great distances.
  • The roots anchor the fern to the ground.
ferns club mosses a ferns club mosses and horsetails nd horsetails
Ferns, Club Mosses, a Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails nd Horsetails

Other Vascular Plants


  • Long, coarse, needlelike branches that grow in a circle around a joint.
  • Small leaves grow flat against the stem just above each joint.
  • The stems contain silica, a gritty substance also found in sand.

Club mosses

  • Only few hundred species
  • Sometimes called Princess Pine
  • Grow in moist woodlands or near streams.
  • Similar to ferns
  • Have vascular tissue
asking questions

- Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

Asking Questions

Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what, how, or where question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to your questions.

Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails



What are the characteristics of seedless vascular plants?

Seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue; they do not produce seeds; they reproduce by releasing spores.

How do ferns reproduce?

Ferns reproduce by spores that form on the underside of their fronds.

How do club mosses differ from true mosses?

Club mosses have vascular tissue.

graphic organizer
Graphic Organizer





Small and low

Can be tall




Rootlike, stemlike,

leaflike structures

True roots,

stems, and leaves

Body parts

Familiar generation



Is true vascular

tissue present?





Photosynthesis chlorophyll tissue cuticle

vascular tissue fertilization zygote

Sporophyte nonvascular plants peat bog

gametophyte rhizoids fronds

Spores vascular plants