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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. Enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that are used by the cell to speed up and regulate metabolic reactions. Enzymes are biological catalysts that remain unchanged by the reaction. Enzymes.

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Presentation Transcript
enzymes1

Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that are used by the cell to speed up and regulate metabolic reactions. Enzymes are biological catalysts that remain unchanged by the reaction.

enzymes2

Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins with a 3 dimensional shape. Their specific shape determines the substrate that it works with. Substrates are the substances that the enzymes act upon.

Lipase acts on lipids.

Maltase acts on maltose.

Protease acts on proteins.

Lactase works on .

Lactose

enzymes3

Enzymes

The substrate is temporarily bound to its enzyme at the active site. The enzyme may change shape slightly to accommodate the substrate.

enzymes4

Enzymes

Coenzymes - Some enzymes contain a non-protein component called a coenzyme. If the coenzyme is missing, the enzyme will not function. Vitamins often function as coenzymes.

enzymes5

Enzymes

  • The rate of enzyme activity depends not only on its 3 dimensional shape, but it also depends on other factors.

temperature

pH

concentration

temperature

Temperature

The temperature where the enzyme functions most effectively is called the optimal temperature. If the temperature is raised above the optimal temperature, the rate of enzyme action will decrease.

temperature1

Temperature

  • What is the optimal temperature for enzyme A? ________
  • What is the optimal temperature for enzyme B? ________
  • Knowing that room temperature is approximately 22 degrees Celsius, which enzyme would work best in your body? __________
slide9

pH

The pH scale is a measure of hydrogen ions in a solution. The pH will also affect the rate of enzyme activity.

slide10

NaOH

KOH

OH

Bases

HCl

H2SO4

H

Acids

slide11

Intestinal Protease

Gastric Protease

pH

  • What is the optimal pH for the enzyme found in your stomach ?
  • What is the optimal pH for the enzyme found in your intestine?
  • What organic substance are both of these enzymes digesting?
concentration

Concentration

The rate of enzyme action also depends on the concentration of enzyme present. The larger the concentration of enzyme, the faster the rate of reaction; however, there is still an optimal concentration of enzyme.