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Taxonomy - Chap 14 and 19. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms The system used by biologists is called the Linnnaean System. Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish biologist in the mid-1700s

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taxonomy chap 14 and 19
Taxonomy - Chap 14 and 19
  • Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms
  • The system used by biologists is called the Linnnaean System.
  • Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish biologist in the mid-1700s
  • He popularized a system of grouping organisms according to like characteristics and giving each group a specific name.
taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • The most important part of this system was the use of binomial nomenclature
    • Binomial nomenclature is the use of a two word name to identify individual species, i.e. Anampseschrysocephalusis the Psychedelic Wrasse.
    • Many of the species Linnaeus named in 1753 still have the two-part names he gave them.
taxonomy1
Taxonomy
  • The first part of the name is the genus.
    • A genus is a group of closely related species.
    • Most hybrids are between two species in the same genus.
    • The genus is always capitalized.
  • The second part of the name is the species name.
    • A species is a group of organisms that are capable of interbreeding and can produce fertile offspring of both sexes.
    • The species name is never capitalized.
taxonomy2
Taxonomy
  • Saccopharynxharrisoni
  • Genus : Saccopharynx
  • Species : harrisoni
  • Other species in the same genus include berteli, hjorti, flagellum andthalassa
common name vs scientific name
Common Name vs. Scientific Name
  • Scientific name:
    • Nasolituratus
  • Common Names:
    • OrangespineUnicornfish
    • Orangespine Tang
    • Naso Tang
    • Orange Lipstick Surgeonfish
    • Umaumalei(Hawaiian name)
higher levels of classification
Higher Levels of Classification
  • There are 8 levels of classification.
    • Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  • Each level of classification is based on characteristics that are shared by all organisms in that level.
  • A handy mnemonic:
    • Dumb Kids Play Checkers On Freeways Get Smashed.
    • Danish Kings Play Chess On Fat Green Stools.
    • Daringly Keeping Precious Creatures Organized For Grumpy Scientists
the american lobster
The American Lobster
  • Domain: Eukarya- made of eukaryotic cells
  • Kingdom: Animalia – multicellular heterotroph whose cells lack cell walls
  • Phylum: Arthropoda – jointed appendages, exoskeleton, and a segmented body
  • Subphylum: Crustacea – Use gills to breathe, have antennae
  • Class: Malacostraca – 3 body segments with 5 head segments, 8 thorax segments and 6 abdomen segments
  • Order: Decapoda – ten legs
  • Family: Nephropidae – clawed lobsters
  • Genus: Homarus – Atlantic clawed lobsters
  • Species: americanus– American Lobster
domains
Domains
  • There are three domains.
    • Archaea – Unicellular prokaryotes, often found in harsh environments
    • Bacteria – Unicellular prokaryotes, found everywhere
    • Eukarya – Uni or Multicellular organisms
      • Most non-microscopic life is included in this domain.
prokaryotic vs eukaryotic
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
  • All cells can be divided into two types
    • Prokaryotic cells don’t have a nucleus.
      • All prokaryotes are unicellular.
    • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
      • Eukaryotes can be either unicellular or multicellular.
archaea
Archaea
  • Contains one kingdom, Archaebacteria
  • Unicellular prokaryotes
  • Archaebacteria are often found in extreme environments, such as hot springs or salty lakes.
    • Thermophiles live in very hot places, up to 106 degrees celsius!
    • Acidophiles live in water as acidic as sulfuric acid!
    • However, some live in the same environments bacteria do.
bacteria
Bacteria
  • Contains one kingdom, Bacteria
  • The most abundant organisms on earth!
  • Unicellular prokaryotes
  • Some live without oxygen, called anaerobes.
  • Some use inorganic compounds such as ammonia or methane to make energy.
eukarya
Eukarya
  • The domain Eukarya is made of four kingdoms.
    • Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
  • All organisms in the domain Eukarya are eukaryotes.
  • Most are multicellular, some are unicellular.
  • Some are microscopic, but most can be seen with the naked eye.
  • Eukarya is the only domain that has organisms that undergo true sexual reproduction.
protista
Protista
  • The “garbage” kingdom
    • If an organism isn’t a plant, an animal or a fungus, it’s a protist.
  • Many are unicellular, in fact, all unicellular eukaryotes (except yeasts) are included in kingdom Protista.
  • Because they are a “garbage” kingdom, they have diverse characteristics.
  • Notable types of protists:
    • Algaes and kelps
    • Diatoms
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Slime Molds
fungi
Fungi
  • Fungi include mushrooms, molds and yeasts.
  • All fungi are multicellular except yeasts.
  • Like animals, all fungi get their energy from eating.
    • Fungi secrete digestive enzymes onto whatever they are growing.
    • Most are decomposers that live on dead organisms, but some are parasites.
plantae
Plantae
  • Kingdom Plantae includes all the plants.
  • All are multicellular.
  • All are autotrophs, which means they convert the sunlight into energy.
  • They are non-motile, which means they can’t move from place to place.
    • Many of their adaptations, such as seeds, are a way to overcome this disadvantage.
animalia
Animalia
  • Animals are multicellular eukaryotes.
  • All animals get their energy from other organisms.
  • Animals are either vertebrates, which means they have a backbone, or invertebrates, which means they don’t have a backbone.
    • Of the 1 million species of animals, only about 42,500 are vertebrates!