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Advanced Construction Technology

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  1. Advanced Construction Technology By Professor Chris Gorse & Ian Dickinson – licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non-Commercial – Share Alike License

  2. Ground and soil stabilisation Chris Gorse and Ian Dickinson These slides should be read in conjunction with Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Advanced Construction of Buildings. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing

  3. General problems of ground instability include: • Landslip • Surface flooding and soil erosion • Natural caves and fissures • Mining and quarrying • Landfill • Natural geological variation – faults, changes in geology – differential settlement

  4. Improving the ground • There are a number of different methods that can be used to increase the strength and stability of the ground.

  5. Ground stabilisation • Dynamic compaction • Vibro compaction - Vibro displacement • Vibro flotation - high pressure water jets (improves penetration of hard substrates) • Pressure grouting • Surcharging • Geotechnic membranes • Soil modification and stabilisation

  6. Dynamic compaction • This involves dropping heavy weights onto the ground. • The weight causes the ground to compact.

  7. Dynamic compaction • Ground is consolidated by repeatedly dropping dead weights and specially designed tampers • Weights include: Flat bottomed and cone tampers • Traditional weights are flat bottomed with cable • Modern systems use cones with guide rails • Dynamic compaction is suitable for granular soils, made-up and fill sites • Using dynamic compaction bearing capacities of 50 to 150kN/m2 can be achieved

  8. Dynamic compaction

  9. Typical cone type tampers (adapted from

  10. Dynamic compaction rig

  11. Vibro compaction or displacement • Vibrating rods are forced into the ground causing the surrounding ground to compact and consolidate.

  12. Vibro compaction or vibro displacement • Vibrating mandrels (poker, shaft or rod) penetrates, displaces and compacts the ground. • Void Created is filled with stone and recompacted • Produces stone columns in the ground, compacts surrounding strata enhancing the ground bearing capacity and limiting settlement • Typical applications include support of foundations, slabs, hard standings, pavements, tanks or embankments.

  13. Vibro compaction - continued • Used in soft soils, man made and other strata, can be reinforced to achieve improved specification • On slopes it can limit the risk of slip failure. • Ground bearing capacities, for low to medium rise buildings and industrial developments, is in the region of 100kN/m2 to 200kN/m2. • Improved ground conditions may allow heavier loads to be supported. • Used in granular and cohesive soils

  14. Benefits of vibro-compaction • Buildings can be supported on conventional foundations (normally reinforced and shallow foundations). • Work can commence immediately following the vibro displacement. Foundations can be installed straight away. • The soil is displaced. No soil is produced. • Contaminants remain in the ground – reduces disposal and remediation fees. • Economical, when compared with piling or deep excavation works. • Can be used to regenerate brownfield sites • Can use reclaimed aggregates and soils.

  15. Vibrofloatation • Vibro floatation uses a similar process to vibro compaction • Water jets at the tip of the poker • Water jets help the vibrator penetrate hard layers of ground • Major disadvantage is that the system is messy and imprecise, thus rarely used

  16. Vibro displacement - Typical sequence

  17. Vibro displacement - Typical sequence

  18. Mandrel positioned ready to compact and displace

  19. Ground displaced

  20. Ground compacted void remains

  21. Void filled with stone

  22. Hardcore is repeatedly displaced and compacted

  23. Grouting • Grouting may be used to fill the voids in the ground increasing the strength of the ground.

  24. Pressure grouting • In permeable soils, pressure grouting may be used to fill the voids. • Holes drilled using mechanically driven augers. • As the auger is withdrawn cement slurry is forced down a central tube into the bore under pressure. • Pressures of up to 70,000 N/mm2 can be exerted by the grout on the surrounding soil. • Slurry contains cementious additives, e.g. pulverised fuel ash (pfa), microsilica, chemical grout, cement or a mixture.

  25. Soil modification and stabilization • Machines are available that can break-up the ground, mix the ground with new cementious material and improve the ground quality.

  26. Soil modification and recycling • Additives used in soil stabilisation increase the strength better, improve compacted and maximise bearing capacity and minimise settlement. • The technique can be used to provide stabilised or modified materials for earthworks, or may be used to provide permanent load transfer platforms or hard standings. • Can be used to treat and neutralise certain contaminants or encapsulate the contaminants, removing the need for expensive removal and disposal.

  27. Soil modification, stabilisation and recycling machine

  28. Schematic of soil modification and mixing chamber

  29. Soil modification and stabilization rig www.

  30. Soil modification and stabilization plant www.

  31. www.

  32. Soil modification and stabilization plant www.

  33. Surcharging • This involves placing heavy loads on the ground for long periods of time. • Over time the ground will compact. • Surcharging is time consuming and ties up the land • Can be used if long lead-in time available • Can be used on roads • May be used on investment land (land bank). The increase in strength will increase the value of the land.

  34. Surcharging • Excavated material, quarried stone or other heavy loads. • Settlement and compaction period 6 months to a few years. • For economics the surcharging acts as a temporary storage facility

  35. Geotechnical membranes • Geotechnical membranes provide a sheet of reinforcing material that can be added to the ground. This increases the stability and tensile strength of the ground.

  36. Geotecnic membrane

  37. Geotechnical membranes • Natural • Plastic manmade • Built up in layers compacted between ground hardcore • Sheets, fibres and strips

  38. Further information supporting these slides can be found in the following publication and websites. Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Introduction to Construction of Buildings. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. (2010) Barry’s Advanced Construction of Buildings. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Virtual Site (2010) Virtual Site at Leeds Met University Virtual Site Gallery (2010) Virtual Site Gallery at Leeds Met University