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The Peasant Revolts. Rebellion. What is a rebellion or revolt? A fight against the government or leaders by those of a lower class or social standing. Peasants rebelled against the knights Students rebelled against the teachers Farmers rebelled against the government officials .
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Rebellion • What is a rebellion or revolt? • A fight against the government or leaders by those of a lower class or social standing. • Peasants rebelled against the knights • Students rebelled against the teachers • Farmers rebelled against the government officials
French Revolts • Called ‘Jacquerie’ after Jacques Bonhomme • Started after the French defeat in battle in 1356 • The English captured the French King • While the King was captured, a mob attacked the palace • Serfs in northern France, revolted against their lords • Lords were demanding higher rents • The land had been wasted by years of fighting and Black Death • Lords reacted quickly • The serf leaders were captured and killed • Villages were burned to the ground to prevent future revolts
English Rebellions • In the 14th century, England was devastated by the Black Death • Caused labour shortages • Food and labour prices went up (a lot) • In 1381, Lords passed a law making wages the same as before the Black Death • Then, to pay for the Hundred Years War, they made a new tax (Poll Tax) • Took money from every person in England • Serfs got really angry
English Rebellions • Wat Tyler (former soldier) and John Ball (preacher) started arguing all people were equal to God • There should be no class distinctions (Lords, serfs, peasants, etc) • A peasant army formed, and marched on London • Guild members let them in at the gates • The army killed all the nobles they could, and burned down many buildings. • During negotiations, Wat Tyler was killed and John Ball taken prisoner (and later killed) • The serfs returned to their homes where many (hundreds) were killed by angry Lords
Mood • Pessimism --> thinking the worst will happen • Optimism --> thinking the best will happen • Realism --> thinking both good and bad will happen • Which mood best fits the Middle Ages? Why? • Renaissance --> a ‘rebirth’ of classical (Roman and Greek) knowledge, art, and thinking
Why Italy • Renaissance society (Italian society) was different than the feudal society of Europe • Feudal system --> manor, castle, serfs • Italian system --> rich, had free time, large cities • Spent more time studying new ideas, art • Medieval society was pessimistic • People thought life was short and full of suffering • Most art was religious and was to teach people about Christianity • Italian society was optimistic • Life should be about beauty, how to improve themselves and society • Wanted to capture the best of the past and improve the future
Why Italy • Cities in Italy were larger and richer • Venice, Florence, Genoa, Rome • Cities made money from trading and shipping • Wealthy citizens paid artists to create beautiful art • The ruins of the Roman Empire were all around them • Had trade from the Middle East • The Middle East had not had a period of like feudal Europe • Ideas, new knowledge were still progressing • Did not have issues with law • Still used old Roman laws • Made business and trade between regions easier
Homework Explain the differences in thinking between Feudalism in the Middle Ages and the Italian Renaissance.
Italian Geography • During the Middle Ages, Italy was not a country • A collection of city-states • As trade increased, cities with ports became large and powerful • They were centres of trade • Two largest cities were Venice and Genoa • Venice (East), Genoa (West) • With more trade from ever further places, new ideas came too • Knowledge, books, art, medicine, etc
Italian Geography • Italy is mountainous • Alps in the North • Apennines running north-south through the middle • Mountains make trade and communication difficult • Weather conditions are worse in mountains • It’s more work to build a road/path • Cities on old Roman Empire roads through the mountains were prosperous • Florence, Siena, Assisi • These cities became rich and powerful
Italian Geography • Italy’s climate is warmer than north of the Alps • Winter weather did not disrupt travel, trade, and communication as much • The milder climate also means food grows longer • People needed to spend less time growing/raising food • They had more free time • The Italian city-states had closer ties to the Muslim world, Africa, the Middle East and Asia than the rest of Europe did • Ideas, knowledge, food, science, medicine, astronomy • With trade comes wealth, which allows science and art to grow