“People Who Have Made A Difference” “The Renaissance is studded with the names of the artists and architects, with their creations recorded as great historical events.” Arthur Erickson
Essential Understanding: Stories of historical people, both extraordinary and ordinary remind us that history is more than dates and abstract concepts. It arises from the lives of countless individual men and women, sentient beings, who like ourselves are faced with problems and perspectives of their own time. Like every era, The Renaissance and the Age of Exploration brim with stories. "There is properly no history; only biography." Ralph Waldo Emerson
Renaissance means “rebirth”…but ? • Teacher Questions: • What had to be “reborn”…when…and why? • What was life like for people before the Renaissance? • What events affected change and “rebirth”? • Who were the people that affected change and what are their stories? • Student Questions: • ? • ?
Throughout the history of mankind, human technology and culture has experienced many advancements and setbacks. As a civilization rises, new technologies are developed, as well as new types of music, art and literature. Then, years, decades, or even centuries later, as that same civilization begins to decline, many of these technologies and arts are lost. “Alaric at Rome” artist unknown http://www.powellhistory.com/art/history Some historians say that the Middle Ages began in AD 476, with the defeat of the Western Roman Empire. Other historians give the year 410, when Alaric, king of the Visigoths, sacked Rome.
However, one reason it is difficult to tell exactly when the Middle Ages began is because the change from ancient ways to medieval customs came so gradually. During the decline of the Roman Empire, migrations of German barbarians, or Teutonic tribes people, who swept across the Rhine and the Danube into the Roman empire, began to change the life of Europe. They accepted Christianity and the union of barbarian vigor and religious spirit carried Europe to the threshold of modern times. That span from the ancient era to the modern is called the Middle Ages.
The Early Medieval Era is sometimes called the Dark Ages. • We know relatively little about events and material culture in those times. • This era encompasses the reigns of Charlemagne, Alfred the Great, and the Danish Kings of England. It saw frequent Viking activity, and the birth and rapid expansion of Islam in Northern Africa and Spain. During this time Christianity spread throughout much of Europe, and the Papacy evolved into a powerful political entity.
The High Medieval Era is the period of time that seems to typify the Middle Ages best (11th century to 1300’s) • The High Middle Ages saw events such as Norman conquests in Britain, the earlier Crusades, and the signing of the Magna Carta. • There was an explosion of stone castle-building, and the construction of magnificent cathedrals throughout Europe. • In terms of material culture and political structure, the High Middle Ages saw medievalism at its peak. Feudalism was firmly established in parts of Europe; trade in luxury items as well as staples flourished; towns were granted charters and a well-fed population was beginning to burgeon. • By the end of the 13th century, Europe was at an economic and cultural height, perched at the verge of a downturn.
The Late Middle Ages began in the 1300’s but – the end of the end is debatable… ranging from 1450 to the 1600’s. • Cataclysmic and awesome events of the 14th century include the Hundred Years War, the Black Death, the Italian Renaissance . • The 15th century saw Joan of Arc burned at the stake, the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, the Moors driven from Spain and the Jews expelled, and the voyage of Columbus to the New World. • The 16th century was wracked by the Reformation and blessed by the birth of Shakespeare.
The impact of the crusades on World History cannot be overstated. • The crusades precipitated the decline of the Byzantine Empire allowing for the rise of the Ottoman Turks and Russia. • The crusades enhanced the power of the Catholic Church. • The crusades reestablished European commerce in the Middle East, bringing wealth and power back to Italy that exploded into the Renaissance. • The crusades brought Europe into closer contact with Asia and Africa reestablishing interregional trade networks which gave rise to exploration and the development of global trade networks. • The crusades helped advance technology in the form of more accurate maps, magnetic compasses, crossbows, and military techniques. • They reconnected Europe with Asia and Africa, reestablishing trade networks which had been lost for nearly five hundred years.
“History’s Most Successful Failure” The Crusades were a success because the Europeans were introduced to the knowledge of the ancient past that was being preserved by the Muslims. They also introduced new foods and ideas – rice, sugar, chess, algebra, chemistry, the color scarlet, carpet and mirrors. They were a failure because they never regained the Holy Land.
Though famine and disease had always been a lurking presence, the Late Medieval era saw horrific results of both. The Black Death preceded by famine and overpopulation, wiped out 25-50% of Europe’s population. • Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached the shores of Italy in the spring of 1348 unleashing a rampage of death across Europe unprecedented in recorded history. • It marked the end of the prosperity that had characterized the high medieval era. The Church, once so highly respected by the general populace, suffered reduced status when some of its priests refused to minister to the dying during the plague, and sparked resentment when it enjoyed enormous profits in bequests from plague victims. • More and more towns and cities were wresting control of their own governments from the hands of the clergy or nobility that had previously ruled them. And the reduction in population triggered economic and political changes that would never be reversed.
The Fall of Constantinople… … the capital of the Byzantine Empire occurred when the city was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453. It marked the end of the Roman Empire an imperial state which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. It was also a massive blow to Christendom. Several Greek and non-Greek intellectuals fled the city before and after the siege, migrating particularly to Italy. It is argued that they helped fuel the Renaissance.Some mark the end of the Middle Ages by the fall of the city and empire.[
“A New Hope” The Black Death, failure of the crusades, and fall of Constantinople in 1453 were a kind of “wake-up call” for Europe. With the breakdown of the manor systems and the growth of towns, society began to flourish. The sharing of ideas began a new age of art, science and learning unlike any before.
This next era is really about …“PEOPLE” and “HOW THEY WOULD CHANGE THE WORLD”. • The Renaissance became visible at different times in different places. It was the first self-conscious period of European history, articulated by the Humanist writer, Giovanni Boccaccio, who recognized that a new world was being created.
Italy: The Cradle of the Renaissance The Renaissance developed because of the unique circumstances of the Italian peninsula
When you think of the Italian Renaissance, chances are you think of what it gave us: • The extraordinary sculptures of Michelangelo. • The incomparable paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. • The immortal written works of Petrarch and Machiavelli.
Notable lives from between 1400 and 1700 influence our world still today. Some names are Well Known – Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Other famous people from the renaissance include Martin Luther, and Christopher Columbus. but many others are new to middle school students. What are some other famous people you associate with the Renaissance and Age of Exploration? Can you list at least 10?
Some men were drawn to the seas out of a curiosity to discover more about the world. • Famous European explorers came from England, Portugal, Spain, Italy and France. The voyages of discovery undertaken by these famous European explorers were motivated by: • Wealth - gold, silver and spices • Increased Power in Europe • Prestige • Increasing opportunities for trade • Spreading the Christian Religion • Building European Empires
Famous English Explorers The famous English explorers were referred to as pirates and privateers by their enemies. The most famous English explorers embarked on their voyages of discovery during the Elizabethan reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Famous English explorers included Cavendish, Hawkins, Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Drake.
Famous Spanish Explorers Famous Spanish Explorers and Conquistadors explored the Caribbean and South America. Just a few famous Spanish explorers conquered the millions who made up the nations of the Incas and the Aztecs. Famous Spanish explorers included Hernando Cortes, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando De Soto, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Cabeza de Vaca and Juan Ponce de Leon.
Famous Portuguese Explorers The famous Portuguese explorers led the way when it came to exploration. The most famous Portuguese explorers included Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco da Gama, Bartholomeu Dias and Gaspar and Miguel Corte Real.
Prince Henry The Navigator: 1394 - 1460 Prince Henry of Portugal, known as Prince Henry the Navigator, with the help of mathematicians, astronomers, cartographers, and other navigators, sent expeditions to explore the west coast of Africa. These explorations led to trade for gold and ivory and, soon after, slaves. Later, Portuguese sailors discovered the route around the southern tip of Africa that would take them to India entirely by sea.
Johann Gutenberg: c.1398-1468 • Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in the 1450's. The first book printed was a Latin language Bible. The invention of the movable-type printing press meant that Bibles and books could finally be effectively produced in large quantities in a short period of time. This was essential to the success of the Reformation.
Leonardo da Vinci: 1452-1519 Leonardo is generally considered the perfect example of the Renaissance Man. He was an expert at many different things including painting, sculpture, science, architecture, and anatomy. He not only was one of the most celebrated artists of all time with paintings such as the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, but was also one of the most prolific inventors in history.
Niccolò Machiavelli: 1469-1527 • This advisor the Medici family was from Florence, Italy. He was a philosopher, statesman, and political theorist and is often referred to as the “father of modern political theory”. He is most famous for “The Prince”, which describes how a king could take and hold power.
Erasmus: 1466-1536 Erasmus was a Dutch priest and scholar. He was considered the greatest humanist of the north and helped to spread humanism and the Renaissance movement to northern Europe. He is also famous for his book Praise of Folly.
Nicolaus Copernicus: 1473- 1543 • Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer born in Royal Prussia. He spoke 3 languages including Latin and German, and studied in Italy. He was the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
Michelangelo:1475-1564 • Michelangelo was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western Art. He was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime and one of the greatest of all time still today.
Musicians of the Renaissance • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6pBEHBXmKk • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiRpUtVByxU • Thomas Tallis: c1505 – 1585 An English composer who flourished as a church musician during the often stormy sixteenth century in England. He is considered among the best of England’s earliest church composers. His career took him to London, Waltham Abbey, Canterbury Cathedral, and finally to court in 1543, composing and performing for Henry VIII, Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. He remained in the service of the Sovereign for the rest of his life as organist and composer, avoiding the religious controversies that raged around him. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6RgaPTo4hE
Martin Luther: 1483-1546 Luther was a German theologian and priest. He objected to many of the practices of the Catholic Church such as paying to get into heaven and the authority of the Pope. He thought the Bible should be the final authority and that it should be available to everyone. Luther's ideas caused the Reformation and a new type of Christianity called Protestantism.
King Henry VIII: 1491-1547 King Henry the VIII could have been considered the prototypical "Renaissance Man" at his prime. He was tall, good looking, and confident. He was educated and intelligent and could speak four languages. He was also athletic, a good horseman, a musician, composer, and a strong fighter. Henry the VIII is also known for having six different wives and for separating the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.
Paracelsus: 1493-1541 Paracelsus was a Swiss scientist and botanist who helped to make many advances in medicine. He studied current practices in medicine and found that most doctors actually made patient's conditions worse rather than healing them. His studies showed that certain chemicals and drugs could help patients to heal and get better. He also found that the environment and diet of person contributed to their health.
Catherine d’ Medici: 1519-1589 Catherine was a member of the famed Medici family of Florence. As an 11 year old girl she was taken captive and held to try and stop her family from attacking. She convinced her captors that she wanted to become a nun and, as result, they didn't hurt her. A few years later she married the son of the King of France, Henry. Henry became king of France and Catherine a powerful queen. After Henry's death, her sons became kings of France and Poland and her daughter queen of Navarre.
William Shakespeare: 1564-1616 William Shakespeare is one of the greatest poets and playwrights in the world. He changed the way plays were written by creating new styles of writing. He had a talent for writing about the struggles people face. His stories combine conflicts with which both kings and peasants could identify. His plots mirror the every day lives of people and encourage the audience to choose good over evil.
Galileo Galilei: 1564-1642 • Galileo used instruments to observe nature and experiments to understand it. Like Copernicus, he began training for a career in medicine, but later switched to a subject more to his liking, mathematics. Galileo accepted the idea that Earth and the other planets orbited the sun, but he was the first able to prove it based on his observations with a telescope.
Did You Know???? When Galileo died in 1642, he was still under house arrest. The Catholic Church did not pardon him until 1992.
Sir Isaac Newton: 1642-1727 Sir Isaac Newton was born the same year Galileo died. He is clearly the most influential scientist who ever lived. His accomplishments in mathematics, optics, and physics laid the foundations for modern science and revolutionized the world.“If I have been able to see further, it was only because I stood on the shoulders of giants.”
Who’s Who… • Sir Isaac Newton ** • Leonardo da Vinci ** • King Henry VIII ** • Erasmus • Martin Luther ** • Copernicus ** • Niccolo Machiavelli • Catherine d’ Medici • Paracelsus ** • Galileo ** • William Shakespeare ** • Michelangelo ** • Johann Gutenberg ** • Sir Francis Drake * • Sir Walter Raleigh * • Hernando Cortes * • Prince Henry the Navigator * • Cabeza de Vaca * • Francisco Pizarro * • Rembrandt * • John Locke • John Milton • Elizabeth I • Thomas Tallis • Josquin Des Prez**
PBL:Goal is to convince a television network to buy your new television show so everyone will profit. • The television series will be based on Renaissance scholars, inventors, artists and explorers – and their contributions during this time period. It will highlight a new Renaissance figure each week. It is important to connect their contributions to present day society. Reflect on how their contributions impact things we have today.
Choose a Renaissance figure to research • You will need to create the outline of the show which should include the background and major contributions to Renaissance society (ie. Paintings, sculpture, books, poems, scientific discoveries, trade/knowledge). • Your episode will need to include what the contribution was and how it impacted societythen and now. • The end of the episode will include who your scholars counterpart is today (who they are most like in today’s society) and how they are alike.
Your end product will include: 1. A written proposal outlining the show idea with information that clearly shows the impact of past contributions to present day society. 2. A 30 to 45 second “trailer” advertising your episode of the show that will be shared with the producer.
During the renaissance many artists concentrated on making their paintings more alive. Today we continue to use many techniques begun during this time. One technique was chiaroscuro, (remember The Tale of Despereaux), which was a technique where shades appeared in the picture and it helped things in paintings such as clothes become more in-depth and more realistic. Another technique worth mentioning is aerial perspective. Aerial perspective is when a subject is painted from an angle other than the front. This causes the painting to look more realistic. Another technique that we still use in modern art is the linear perspective. The linear perspective if you make a mark in the middle of your paper and everything depends on it from the sizes. This creates an illusion of distance. Also in the renaissance art the proportion started becoming more accurate.
List the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, disease, and culture between the Old and New Worlds • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQPA5oNpfM4&feature=relmfu
EQ: What were the social and economic impacts of exploration on the people of each continent?