HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

niveditha
hw to manage change effectively n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY

play fullscreen
1 / 73
Download Presentation
HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY
321 Views
Download Presentation

HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY BY T.M.JAYASEKERA

  2. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN TECHNICAL CHANGES ARE MADE • CAN PEOPLE MANGE TO COPE WITH THIS CHANGE • HOW HAVEORGANIZATIONS CONFRONTED PEOPLE ISSUES THAT CONFRONTED MAJOR CHANGE PROGRAMMES • WHAT ROLE DO PERSONNEL SPECIALISTS PLAY WHY DO THEY STILL SEEM TO BE MARGINAL

  3. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • IT WILL IMPACT ON EMPLYEES AND THEIR CONTRACTS • JOBS CHANGE • TRAINING IS REQUIRED • REDEPLOYED OR • MADE REDUNDANT

  4. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • Tough managers may talk of “automate or liquidate” or “re-engineer or obliterate” with “TINA” • There • Is • No • Alternative • is what they normally say

  5. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • Technological change is inevitable to sustain competitive advantage and from it follow the most inevitable • People change

  6. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • However be aware that • management has a range of choices about • objectives – whose are they? What is the real substance of the technical change and the competitive threat • Why is technical change wanted and introduced in the first place

  7. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • There are choices about • the nature and extent of implementation • Communication, the scope of consultation and the type of negotiation • the power skills that may be brought to bear • effects on work design, job content, organization and supervision

  8. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • The nature and quality of management decision making comes under the spotlight in situations of technical change • I know six honest serving me. I taught them all I knew. The names are what and why and how and where and when and why

  9. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • The matter of gender arises also particularly if we consider whether women are caught out differently than men in situations of technical change • As heavy manual male dominated industries have declined and service industries expanded some groups of men have been adversely affected

  10. THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE • Consider the situations where women may get trapped in to certain types of work • Therefore we may have to consider whether women are well represented as men in the high tech industries • Would women respond differently in situations of technical change

  11. UK experience • In the early 80s Rupert Murdock's move in to a new modern integrated technology printing plant at Wapping • Miners dispute of 1982 • Slow introduction of IT in to general practitioner surgeries • IT based learning in schools • The organizational responses to the internet- The dot.com boom

  12. Is technical change guided by usually guided by consistent management objectives • We argue that management decisions over technical change reflect rational attempts to chose the best option in the circumstances with available information

  13. TYPES OF DECISIONS • what is rational to one group or individual may be irrational to another

  14. POLITICS BEHIND TECHNICAL CHANGE • OBJECTIVES CAN BE DIVIDED ACCROSS FUNCTIONAL LEVELS • Strategic • Operating • Control • These are the direct ones • But there are others such as empire building? etc

  15. Substituting of people by technology • Deskilling?- Replacing the man with the machine • Development of ATMs • Laptop with internet access • Who got axed – Middle and Junior levels • Ex: Robotics

  16. HUMAN AND ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES • 1. SUBSTANTIVE • STRATEGIC • EMPLOYMENT • CONTROL • 2. PROCEDURAL • ISSUES AND FORMS OF INVOLVEMENT

  17. STRATEGIC ISSUES • COMMUNICATION AND SHARING TO PROMOTE RTHE COMMITTMENT OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS TO CHANGE • TO MINIMIZE ADVERSE EFFECTS N MEMBERS OF THE ORGANIZATION AND TO SUPPORT THEM IN REALIZING THE OPPORTUNITIES THAT THE CHANGES MAY BRING TO THE ORGANIZATION AND MEMBERS • INTEGRATE THE NEEDS OF THE INDIVIDUAL WITH THE NEEDS OF THE ORGANIZATION • ABOUT THE ATTITUDES SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE

  18. DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATIVE ISSUES • Organizational change is always political • Therefore there will be always winners and losers • Therefore those directly affected by change must be consulted • They must be involved • There will have to be a win win situation • Involving employees have mixed blessings as some may disagree challenge seek status quoand may claim rights

  19. PROS AND CONS OF PARTICIPATION • ADVANTAGES • Job holders have detailed knowledge of their jobs • Employees understand the aims of change better • It will create a feeling of ownership • It will direct energy in to support for and away from opposition

  20. PROS AND CONS OF PARTICIPATION • DISADVANTAGES • Too many cooks spoil the broth • It may be counter cultural to have wider participation • It may assume a management inclination to move through fostering and waiting for commitment rather than strategic direction and imperative action • Involvement may bring more uncertainty and instability

  21. PROS AND CONS OF PARTICIPATION • More complex the change is more the more functions structural hierarchies and subsystems will be affected • this suggests not to seek for participation • If it is required then a formal approach with timelines are needed • There may be occassions wher the quality of the decision may be more important than the acceptance of it

  22. ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT • How and when are human and organizational issues arising from technological change considered at the strategic level and for that matter at other points • To what extent the management function most associated with the people aspect of management – the personnel department involved in decisions concerning technical change

  23. but what happens is that --- • little evidence of personnel people being present where the change is taking place • the occurrence of tech change did not lead to the development of a specialist personnel function • In manufacturing there was a marginal role for personnel specialists over the management of technical change • Where organizational change only was involved fuller and earlier personnel involvement was more likely • absence of personnel involvement was reflected in a low level of employee involvement in technical change

  24. why this happened--- • Personnel lacked visibility and muscle • they were weakly represented at the highest levels of decision making

  25. why this happened--- • According to Daniel early involvement of personnel specialists in technological change helps to promote worker acceptance of change

  26. exercise • Assume a devil’s advocate role and answer to this • Business processes and practices are made and operated by people, working as individuals or or in groups. They use technologies as tools to produce goods and services • It is their efforts that determine the success or failure of investments in technology • further they know intrinsically what benefits are actually being delivered • The actual benefits of tech investments cannot be perceived directly or in their own. Only when technology is coupled with human resources can the benefits be perceived

  27. exercise • Technology and knowledge are human creations and they can be managed only by giving people the primary role • Technology is not a magic dust. It takes educated committed and imaginative individuals with technology to Aadd value and transform an enterprise

  28. HRM and Change • HRM refers to approaches to the management of the human Resources of the firm and more specifically to an approach that is distinct from conventional personnel management • HRM is more unitarist proactive and less procedurally bound and institutionalized approach than personnel management

  29. HRM and Change • Contribution of HRM services in high technology based organizations are not really so

  30. HRM and Change • For HRM business need is • Central customer oriented and integrated • There is a central role for HR Missions and Policies in overall business strategy • Line management have a key role in implementing HR policies

  31. Key levers for facilitating change stress • Having the right staff, in the right jobs, at the right level of competence in the right place at the right time • Individualization of employment relations with flexible reward packages • New forms of work organization and control particularly project teams part time job sharing etc • High level competencies learning training and development

  32. modes of intervention by HR specialist • Changemaker • Regulator • Adviser • Handmaiden

  33. Modes of intervention by HR specialist • According to research former HRM approach is evident in the management of change • In large unionized firms HR specialiust acted as a regulator • Because of the Human Res Mgmt approach human and organizational issues receive more attention

  34. Broader view of HRM represents • Employment planning • Direct communication with employees • Employee feelings • Employment terms • Employment cost benefits • Employee development • Decision Making

  35. According to Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development • There is a direct correlation between strategic HRM and economic success • Employees are now seen not as a cost centre subject to periodic reductions but as major organizational asset • they create value reduce cost and ensure success

  36. Business strategy- HRM integration does seem to offer • a broader range of solutions to complex organizational problems in a changing environment • It ensures that human financial and technological resources are given attention in setting objectives and assessing implementation capabilities • In contributions to rather than being subordinate to strategic decisions. It must be aligned with corporate strategy

  37. Implementing Technical change • Change strategies • Participative evolution- Collaborative and consultative Modes • Forced evolution – Directive /coercive modes • Charismatic Transformation-Collaborative and consultative Modes • Dictatorial transformation – Directive /coercive modes

  38. determinants as to which approach will fit a particular context • the degree of consensus that exist over the need for change • the amount of time available to effect change before its absence becomes a survival threatening condition • Incremental change is luxury and many cannot afford • It is the transformational change that is needed to arrest a business decline

  39. what external/internal environmental circumstances would be most appropriate for employing each of these four strategies • when is collaborative strategy? • When should the stakeholders are consulted ? • Time involved? • Consensus of all? • When is manipulation ?

  40. Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change • Change agent has to address three agendas • 1. Content agenda • 2. Control agenda • 3. Process agenda

  41. Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change • Change agent has to assess and manage their personal vulnerability which is high where • project goals change frequently • project generates complex organizational interdependencies • responsibility of change is ambiguous • Senior management is either hostile or indifferent

  42. Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change • Change agents require expertise in diagnosis evaluation and judgmental capabilities and • the capacity to manage unfolding logics in problem solving ownership and legitimation as change takes place

  43. Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change • In vulnerable change projects legitimation will be the key area

  44. Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change • Effective change management for vulnerable projects require • a public performance based on the rational linear model of change and • a backstage performance with much behind the scenes action

  45. The expertise of change agent is based on • Type of change – Change management Task • Radical change to core processes - High hazzle High vulnerability • Radical change to peripheral processes Moderate Hazzle Low Vulnerability • Incremental change to core processes – Low hazzle moderate vulnerability • Incremental change to peripheral processes – Low hazzle low vulnerability

  46. Most appropriate change agent • in high vulnerability contexts may well be one with limited technical background in the content and control but with string process skills

  47. Most appropriate change agent • in high vulnerability contexts may well be one with limited technical background in the content and control but with string process skills

  48. Articulating and defining a project • Trial able • Reversible • Divisible • Concrete • Familiar • Congruent • Sexy

  49. Countering counter implementation strategies • Divert Resources • Exploit inertia and conformity • Keep goals vague and complex • Keep people in the dark • Deal with the people issues later attitude • Great idea- let’s do it properly • Dissipate energies

  50. countering strategies will seek to reduce • change agents influence and credibility • spread damaging rumors • External Change agent should • keep a low profile • Remain non commital • Not declaring res8istance to change publicly