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HW TO MANAGE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY. BY T.M.JAYASEKERA . WHAT HAPPENS WHEN TECHNICAL CHANGES ARE MADE . CAN PEOPLE MANGE TO COPE WITH THIS CHANGE HOW HAVEORGANIZATIONS CONFRONTED PEOPLE ISSUES THAT CONFRONTED MAJOR CHANGE PROGRAMMES

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what happens when technical changes are made
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN TECHNICAL CHANGES ARE MADE
  • CAN PEOPLE MANGE TO COPE WITH THIS CHANGE
  • HOW HAVEORGANIZATIONS CONFRONTED PEOPLE ISSUES THAT CONFRONTED MAJOR CHANGE PROGRAMMES
  • WHAT ROLE DO PERSONNEL SPECIALISTS PLAY WHY DO THEY STILL SEEM TO BE MARGINAL
the outcome of technical change
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • IT WILL IMPACT ON EMPLYEES AND THEIR CONTRACTS
  • JOBS CHANGE
  • TRAINING IS REQUIRED
  • REDEPLOYED OR
  • MADE REDUNDANT
the outcome of technical change1
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • Tough managers may talk of “automate or liquidate” or “re-engineer or obliterate” with “TINA”
  • There
  • Is
  • No
  • Alternative
  • is what they normally say
the outcome of technical change2
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • Technological change is inevitable to sustain competitive advantage and from it follow the most inevitable
  • People change
the outcome of technical change3
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • However be aware that
  • management has a range of choices about
  • objectives – whose are they? What is the real substance of the technical change and the competitive threat
  • Why is technical change wanted and introduced in the first place
the outcome of technical change4
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • There are choices about
  • the nature and extent of implementation
  • Communication, the scope of consultation and the type of negotiation
  • the power skills that may be brought to bear
  • effects on work design, job content, organization and supervision
the outcome of technical change5
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • The nature and quality of management decision making comes under the spotlight in situations of technical change
  • I know six honest serving me. I taught them all I knew. The names are what and why and how and where and when and why
the outcome of technical change6
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • The matter of gender arises also particularly if we consider whether women are caught out differently than men in situations of technical change
  • As heavy manual male dominated industries have declined and service industries expanded some groups of men have been adversely affected
the outcome of technical change7
THE OUTCOME OF TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • Consider the situations where women may get trapped in to certain types of work
  • Therefore we may have to consider whether women are well represented as men in the high tech industries
  • Would women respond differently in situations of technical change
uk experience
UK experience
  • In the early 80s Rupert Murdock's move in to a new modern integrated technology printing plant at Wapping
  • Miners dispute of 1982
  • Slow introduction of IT in to general practitioner surgeries
  • IT based learning in schools
  • The organizational responses to the internet- The dot.com boom
is technical change guided by usually guided by consistent management objectives
Is technical change guided by usually guided by consistent management objectives
  • We argue that management decisions over technical change reflect rational attempts to chose the best option in the circumstances with available information
types of decisions
TYPES OF DECISIONS
  • what is rational to one group or individual may be irrational to another
politics behind technical change
POLITICS BEHIND TECHNICAL CHANGE
  • OBJECTIVES CAN BE DIVIDED ACCROSS FUNCTIONAL LEVELS
  • Strategic
  • Operating
  • Control
  • These are the direct ones
  • But there are others such as empire building? etc
substituting of people by technology
Substituting of people by technology
  • Deskilling?- Replacing the man with the machine
  • Development of ATMs
  • Laptop with internet access
  • Who got axed – Middle and Junior levels
  • Ex: Robotics
human and organizational issues
HUMAN AND ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES
  • 1. SUBSTANTIVE
  • STRATEGIC
  • EMPLOYMENT
  • CONTROL
  • 2. PROCEDURAL
  • ISSUES AND FORMS OF INVOLVEMENT
strategic issues
STRATEGIC ISSUES
  • COMMUNICATION AND SHARING TO PROMOTE RTHE COMMITTMENT OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS TO CHANGE
  • TO MINIMIZE ADVERSE EFFECTS N MEMBERS OF THE ORGANIZATION AND TO SUPPORT THEM IN REALIZING THE OPPORTUNITIES THAT THE CHANGES MAY BRING TO THE ORGANIZATION AND MEMBERS
  • INTEGRATE THE NEEDS OF THE INDIVIDUAL WITH THE NEEDS OF THE ORGANIZATION
  • ABOUT THE ATTITUDES SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE
democratic participative issues
DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATIVE ISSUES
  • Organizational change is always political
  • Therefore there will be always winners and losers
  • Therefore those directly affected by change must be consulted
  • They must be involved
  • There will have to be a win win situation
  • Involving employees have mixed blessings as some may disagree challenge seek status quoand may claim rights
pros and cons of participation
PROS AND CONS OF PARTICIPATION
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Job holders have detailed knowledge of their jobs
  • Employees understand the aims of change better
  • It will create a feeling of ownership
  • It will direct energy in to support for and away from opposition
pros and cons of participation1
PROS AND CONS OF PARTICIPATION
  • DISADVANTAGES
  • Too many cooks spoil the broth
  • It may be counter cultural to have wider participation
  • It may assume a management inclination to move through fostering and waiting for commitment rather than strategic direction and imperative action
  • Involvement may bring more uncertainty and instability
pros and cons of participation2
PROS AND CONS OF PARTICIPATION
  • More complex the change is more the more functions structural hierarchies and subsystems will be affected
  • this suggests not to seek for participation
  • If it is required then a formal approach with timelines are needed
  • There may be occassions wher the quality of the decision may be more important than the acceptance of it
role and contribution of personnel management
ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
  • How and when are human and organizational issues arising from technological change considered at the strategic level and for that matter at other points
  • To what extent the management function most associated with the people aspect of management – the personnel department involved in decisions concerning technical change
but what happens is that
but what happens is that ---
  • little evidence of personnel people being present where the change is taking place
  • the occurrence of tech change did not lead to the development of a specialist personnel function
  • In manufacturing there was a marginal role for personnel specialists over the management of technical change
  • Where organizational change only was involved fuller and earlier personnel involvement was more likely
  • absence of personnel involvement was reflected in a low level of employee involvement in technical change
why this happened
why this happened---
  • Personnel lacked visibility and muscle
  • they were weakly represented at the highest levels of decision making
why this happened1
why this happened---
  • According to Daniel early involvement of personnel specialists in technological change helps to promote worker acceptance of change
exercise
exercise
  • Assume a devil’s advocate role and answer to this
  • Business processes and practices are made and operated by people, working as individuals or or in groups. They use technologies as tools to produce goods and services
  • It is their efforts that determine the success or failure of investments in technology
  • further they know intrinsically what benefits are actually being delivered
  • The actual benefits of tech investments cannot be perceived directly or in their own. Only when technology is coupled with human resources can the benefits be perceived
exercise1
exercise
  • Technology and knowledge are human creations and they can be managed only by giving people the primary role
  • Technology is not a magic dust. It takes educated committed and imaginative individuals with technology to Aadd value and transform an enterprise
hrm and change
HRM and Change
  • HRM refers to approaches to the management of the human Resources of the firm and more specifically to an approach that is distinct from conventional personnel management
  • HRM is more unitarist proactive and less procedurally bound and institutionalized approach than personnel management
hrm and change1
HRM and Change
  • Contribution of HRM services in high technology based organizations are not really so
hrm and change2
HRM and Change
  • For HRM business need is
  • Central customer oriented and integrated
  • There is a central role for HR Missions and Policies in overall business strategy
  • Line management have a key role in implementing HR policies
key levers for facilitating change stress
Key levers for facilitating change stress
  • Having the right staff, in the right jobs, at the right level of competence in the right place at the right time
  • Individualization of employment relations with flexible reward packages
  • New forms of work organization and control particularly project teams part time job sharing etc
  • High level competencies learning training and development
modes of intervention by hr specialist
modes of intervention by HR specialist
  • Changemaker
  • Regulator
  • Adviser
  • Handmaiden
modes of intervention by hr specialist1
Modes of intervention by HR specialist
  • According to research former HRM approach is evident in the management of change
  • In large unionized firms HR specialiust acted as a regulator
  • Because of the Human Res Mgmt approach human and organizational issues receive more attention
broader view of hrm represents
Broader view of HRM represents
  • Employment planning
  • Direct communication with employees
  • Employee feelings
  • Employment terms
  • Employment cost benefits
  • Employee development
  • Decision Making
according to chartered institute of personnel and development
According to Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
  • There is a direct correlation between strategic HRM and economic success
  • Employees are now seen not as a cost centre subject to periodic reductions but as major organizational asset
  • they create value reduce cost and ensure success
business strategy hrm integration does seem to offer
Business strategy- HRM integration does seem to offer
  • a broader range of solutions to complex organizational problems in a changing environment
  • It ensures that human financial and technological resources are given attention in setting objectives and assessing implementation capabilities
  • In contributions to rather than being subordinate to strategic decisions. It must be aligned with corporate strategy
implementing technical change
Implementing Technical change
  • Change strategies
  • Participative evolution- Collaborative and consultative Modes
  • Forced evolution – Directive /coercive modes
  • Charismatic Transformation-Collaborative and consultative Modes
  • Dictatorial transformation – Directive /coercive modes
determinants as to which approach will fit a particular context
determinants as to which approach will fit a particular context
  • the degree of consensus that exist over the need for change
  • the amount of time available to effect change before its absence becomes a survival threatening condition
  • Incremental change is luxury and many cannot afford
  • It is the transformational change that is needed to arrest a business decline
slide39
what external/internal environmental circumstances would be most appropriate for employing each of these four strategies
  • when is collaborative strategy?
  • When should the stakeholders are consulted ?
  • Time involved?
  • Consensus of all?
  • When is manipulation ?
expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change
Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change
  • Change agent has to address three agendas
  • 1. Content agenda
  • 2. Control agenda
  • 3. Process agenda
expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change1
Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change
  • Change agent has to assess and manage their personal vulnerability which is high where
  • project goals change frequently
  • project generates complex organizational interdependencies
  • responsibility of change is ambiguous
  • Senior management is either hostile or indifferent
expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change2
Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change
  • Change agents require expertise in diagnosis evaluation and judgmental capabilities and
  • the capacity to manage unfolding logics in problem solving ownership and legitimation as change takes place
expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change3
Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change
  • In vulnerable change projects legitimation will be the key area
expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change4
Expertise of the change agent to manage complex contemporary change
  • Effective change management for vulnerable projects require
  • a public performance based on the rational linear model of change and
  • a backstage performance with much behind the scenes action
the expertise of change agent is based on
The expertise of change agent is based on
  • Type of change – Change management Task
  • Radical change to core processes - High hazzle High vulnerability
  • Radical change to peripheral processes Moderate Hazzle Low Vulnerability
  • Incremental change to core processes – Low hazzle moderate vulnerability
  • Incremental change to peripheral processes – Low hazzle low vulnerability
most appropriate change agent
Most appropriate change agent
  • in high vulnerability contexts may well be one with limited technical background in the content and control but with string process skills
most appropriate change agent1
Most appropriate change agent
  • in high vulnerability contexts may well be one with limited technical background in the content and control but with string process skills
articulating and defining a project
Articulating and defining a project
  • Trial able
  • Reversible
  • Divisible
  • Concrete
  • Familiar
  • Congruent
  • Sexy
countering counter implementation strategies
Countering counter implementation strategies
  • Divert Resources
  • Exploit inertia and conformity
  • Keep goals vague and complex
  • Keep people in the dark
  • Deal with the people issues later attitude
  • Great idea- let’s do it properly
  • Dissipate energies
countering strategies will seek to reduce
countering strategies will seek to reduce
  • change agents influence and credibility
  • spread damaging rumors
  • External Change agent should
  • keep a low profile
  • Remain non commital
  • Not declaring res8istance to change publicly
countering countervailing efforts
countering countervailing efforts
  • Define clear direction and objectives
  • Go for a simple phased programme
  • appoint some one else as a fixes facilitator
  • Look for resistance
  • Use good face to face communication
  • explain the reasons
  • Build personal credibility
  • co-opt support early
  • exploit a crisis
  • Have a meaningful steering commiuttee
power skills
Power Skills
  • Power skills for managers to get things done
  • Do a stake holder analysis to caste light on
  • goals of the change programme and who the change agent is
  • Groups/people who are significant in achieving or blocking the change
  • their views and how they will react to the programme
  • their power bases
  • the change agents power base
  • Power skills
power skills that are used not used in a given situation
Power skills that are used / not used in a given situation
  • action steps/proposals to get things moving and done
  • Process agenda
backstaging
Backstaging
  • Manipulation facilitates change through
  • creative use of language
  • changing systems and structures
  • building alliances
  • threats to gain support through

delayering / withdrawing rewards

Promotion or other career advancencement to the blockers

freezing out

  • Amplifying the estimated negative effects
  • pointing the support of senior management
conclusion
conclusion
  • role of Human Resources in technological change is very important
  • It is reactive as well as proactive
  • Greatest happiness to greatest number should be the key
od what is it
OD - what is it?
  • It tries to understand how to manage planned change in organizations
od what is it1
OD - what is it?
  • It is a planned system wide effort managed from top with the assistance of a change agent that uses behavioural science knowledge to improve organizational effectiveness
action research
Action research
  • Most OD activities rely on action research as the primary blue print for planned change
  • It is a data based problem oriented process that diagnoses the need for change introduces the OD activity and then evaluate and stabilizes the desired changes
the action research approach to organization development
The action research approach to organization development

Diagnose need for change

Gather data Analyze data and decide intervention objectives

Introduce intervention

Implement desired incremental or quantum change

Evaluate and stabilize change

Determine effectiveness of change and refreeze new conditions

what is sensitivity training
What is sensitivity training
  • It is an unstructured agendaless session in which participants become more aware through their interactions of how they affect others and how others affect them
what is sensitivity training1
What is sensitivity training
  • Here a small group of people meet face to face often for a few days to learn more about themselves and their relations with others
  • Learning occurs as participants disclose information about themselves and receive feedback from others during the session
goals of sensitivity training
Goals of sensitivity training
  • Making people increasingly aware of and sensitive to emotional reactions and expressions in themselves and others
  • Increasing the ability of participants to perceive and to learn from the consequences of their actions through attention to their own and others feelings
  • stimulating the clarification and development of personal values and goals consonant with a democratic and scientific approach to problems of social and personal decisions and actions
goals of sensitivity training1
Goals of sensitivity training
  • Developing concepts and theoretical insights which will serve as tools in linking personal values goals and intentions to actions consistent with these inner factors and with the requirements of the situation
  • fostering the achievement of behavioural effectiveness in transactions with the participants’ environment
interacting process variables in sensitivity training
Interacting process variables in sensitivity training

Growth in effective membership

Learning how to learn

Learning how to give help

Becoming sensitive to group processes

what is grid training
What is grid training
  • Six phases
  • Laboratory seminar training
  • Team development
  • Inter group development
  • Organizational goal setting
  • Goal attainment
  • Stabilization
survey feed back
Survey feed back
  • It is survey conducted by way of questionnaires and feed back the data to those who generated them
survey feed back1
Survey feed back
  • Areas covered
  • leadership
  • Organizational climate
  • Satisfaction
other methods
Other methods
  • Team building
  • Third party peacemaking
  • process consultation
  • transactional analysis
business strategy and hrm
Business Strategy and HRM
  • In order to get the strategy implemented they need
  • right people
  • in the right place
  • at the right time
  • at the right cost
  • labour factor of production should give value for money
to get value for money from labour
To get value for money from labour
  • Firm should grow with People it has or it can get hold of at the times of need
  • the behaviour of its members should not jeopardy the firm
  • people in the organization must be members and who want to perform for it with effort and creative ingenuity
  • Organization in turn should value its members and their contribution
to get value for money from labour1
To get value for money from labour
  • If organization does not demonstrate such value materially and socially then members will become detached
  • Therefore strategy requires
  • long term goals
  • broad programmes and
  • allocations to achieve these
to get value for money from labour2
To get value for money from labour
  • Each programme represent policy for action
  • Funds assets people must be allocated to these programmes
  • This is not a one time affair
  • Every time we employ someone this has to be resourced
what are human resource strategies
What are human resource strategies
  • To contain trade union influence?
  • recruiting the best?
  • Keeping costs down
  • becoming flexible and lean but empowering them with the best training rewards and equipment to do the job
  • ----- Pg 154-5- how do you feel about these statements
  • which ones are straight foreword/ Which ones are contradictory