HYBRID CAR TECHNOLOGY AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Presented by Oxford Fire-EMS
WHAT IS A HYBRID? • The dictionary defines a hybrid as something of mixed origin • A hybrid vehicle is one that combines a smaller-than-normal internal combustion gasoline engine with the electric motor of an electric-powered vehicle
HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK? • A hybrid car is a passenger vehicle that is driven by a hybrid engine, which is an engine that combines two or more sources of power, generally gasoline and electricity • There are two types of gasoline-electric hybrids: • Parallel hybrid • Series hybrid
HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK? • Both use gasoline-electric hybrid technology, but in radically different ways • Both have small gasoline engines • Both produce much less pollution than standard gasoline cars • Both produce much less power – generally between 60-90hp (the average gasoline engine produces double that)
HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK? • Both are constructed of ultra lightweight materials like carbon fiber or aluminum to overcome the power gap • Both are generally designed to be more aerodynamic than most cars, allowing them to “slice” through the air instead of pushing it out of the way
HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK? • Both use a process called regenerative braking to store the kinetic energy generated by brake use in the batteries, which in turn will power the electric motor • Both use electric power at starts and stops, low speeds (generally below 15mph) • Both use the gasoline engine at cruising or highway speeds
HOW PARALLEL HYBRID CARS WORK Gasoline engine and electric motor work together to move the car forward
HOW SERIES HYBRID CARS WORK Gasoline engine either directly powers an electric motor that powers the vehicle, or charges batteries that will power the battery
OTHER HYBRID TERMINOLOGY • Full Hybrid: Can move solely on electric power • Mild Hybrid:Requires at least some gasoline to power the transmission • Stop-Start Hybrids: Use electric power only while idling or during vehicle deceleration
HYBRID VOLTAGE Did you know that the following voltages are currently used in North American passenger vehicles? • 12 Volt – ALL vehicles • 36 Volts – Saturn Vue • 42 Volt – some conventional and hybrid models • 72 Volt – NEVs • 144 Volt – ALL Honda hybrids • 300 Volt – Toyota first generation Prius hybrids • 500 Volt – Toyota Prius (second generation) • 650 Volt – Toyota Highlander SUV, Lexus RX 400h and GS 450h hybrid
HYBRID VOLTAGE Anyone know why some of the voltages on the previous slide are listed in red?
HYBRID VOLTAGE 60 Volts can kill you! 20 Volts can be deadly if your skin is wet or your standing in water!
HYBRID MYTH BUSTERS Truth About Hybrids
WHO MANUFACTURES AND SELLS HYBRID GASOLINE/ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN THE USA? With the recent releases of hybrids in the 2006 and 2007 model year cars, perhaps the question should be, “Who doesn’t manufacture and sell hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles?”! The following slides show a majority of the manufacturers and the hybrid models they offer. Many more are due out in 2008 such as a hybrid Cadillac Escalade.
2006 Ford Escape Hybrid Compact SUV MSRP $26,000 - $28,000 City: 33 – 36mpg Hwy: 29-31mpg
2006 Honda Accord Midsize Sedan MSRP $18,225 - $32,990 City: 20-25mpg Hwy: 29-34mpg
2006 Honda Civic Compact Sedan MSRP $14,760-$23,650 City: 30-49mpg Hwy: 40-51mpg
2006 Honda Insight Compact Coupe MSRP $19,330-$21,530 City: 57mpg Hwy: 56mpg
2006 Lexus RX 400h Midsize SUV MSRP $44,660-$46,060 City: 31-33mpg Hwy: 27-28mpg
2006 Mercury Mariner Hybrid Compact SUV MSRP $29,225 City:33mpg Hwy: 29mpg
2006 Toyota Camry Midsize Sedan MSRP $18,270 - $27,520 City:24-43mpg Hwy: 31-37mpg
2006 Toyota Highlander Hybrid Midsize MSRP $33,030-39,290 City:31-33mpg Hwy: 27-28mpg
2006 Toyota Prius Compact Sedan MSRP $21,725 City:60mpg Hwy: 51mpg
2007 Nissan Altima 2.5 MSRP $17,750 City:? Hwy: ?
2007 Lexus GS 450h Hybrid Car MSRP $54,900 City:25mpg Hwy: 28mpg
2007 Saturn Vue MSRP $23,000 City:23mpg Hwy: 29mpg
2007 Toyota Sienna Hybrid Minivan MSRP $? City:? Hwy: ?
2007 Chevrolet Tahoe/Yukon Hybrid MSRP $? City:? Hwy: ?
2007 Honda Fit Hybrid MSRP $15,000 Hwy/City:60mpg
2007 Dodge Durango Hybrid MSRP $? City:? Hwy:?
2007 Hyundai Accent Hybrid MSRP $15,000 Hwy/City:45mpg
2007 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid MSRP $? City:24mpg Hwy: 35mpg
HOW DO WE LEARN ABOUT THESE HYBRIDS? • Many manufactures offer on-site training/familiarization through local dealers. • Most offer informational booklets or on-line information geared for emergency procedures. • This technology is changing so rapidly, with no standardization of the location of the batteries and power cables that it is imperative we as rescuers make this knowledge a priority! • Following is an on-line presentation found on the GM site. This presentation was developed to educate emergency workers.
GM Hybrid Trucks Link to a Large 7MB file. Be Patient.
HOW TO IDENTIFY A HYBRID VEHICLE • Quickest and easiest way for emergency responders: All hybrid vehicles have badge plates located on the sides and/or rear of the vehicle
HOW TO IDENTIFY A HYBRID VEHICLE • In place of a tachometer, a power meter showing kW output is used • Do you notice orange (high voltage) or blue (intermediate voltage) loom under hood or running under vehicle? • Hybrid tag on motor • Auxiliary Power Output Operation button on dash or 120VAC plugs noted in bed of pickup
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: A hybrid characteristic we MUST be aware of. Normally on a scene we can hear a vehicle's engine running or see its exhaust. Because a hybrid’s gas engine shuts down when the car stops, rescuers can be fooled into thinking the car is off. A rescuer or victim could accidentally hit the gas pedal, causing the car to move and possible injure other rescuers or bystanders.
The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: Remember: Put hybrids in park, remove the key to shut down the system and chock the wheels before you do anything! Note: Some vehicles feature only an electric button or switch to place vehicle in park HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS
The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: If there is no key, the start/stop button should be located somewhere on the dash and the patient should have a key fob. (manufacturers aren’t making the task of shutting off the vehicles any easier!) HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS The “SLEEPING” Car Syndrome: Parking Brake Button Power Button for Engine Start/Stop Key Fob Receiver Toyota Prius Dash
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology Gas-Electric systems use a technology that disconnects the battery power if a difference in voltage is detected. Should the vehicle detect a voltage change, it will disconnect the power feed to and from the high voltage battery.
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology Example: If the vehicle ends up in water, such as a drainage ditch, the vehicle’s computer automatically shuts down the high-voltage system. Remember: 20 Volts and wet skin are deadly!
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology Important: High-voltage systems also disable or disconnect when air bags have been deployed. Note:We need to start paying more attention to whether or not air bags have deployed. Not only can an air bag decapitate an unwary rescuer, now they can lead to the electrocution of the rescuer!
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS Interrupt Technology If the high-voltage cables running under the front of the vehicle were damaged as in a severe crash or fully involved vehicle fire, the high-voltage battery would short-circuit. This would de-energize the entire high-voltage battery circuit.
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS HIGH VOLTAGE LINES Avoid cutting high-voltage wires during vehicle rescue. MOST hybrids’ high voltage lines run closer to the center of the vehicle and down toward the rear, where the battery is located. High voltage lines are wrapped in orange loom.
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS GM Hybrid Pick-up Cutaway 120v Electric Starter/ Generator 42v
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS INTERMEDIATE VOLTAGE LINES Saturn introduced its Vue for the 2007 model year. The hybrid uses a 36V system. The engineers explain that the vehicle’s 36V system is not considered high voltage, the term used is Intermediate Voltage and the lines are wrapped in blue loom, instead of the orangeloomthat is standard for high voltage lines in gas/electric hybrids
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS After disabling the vehicle, power is maintained for 90 seconds in the SRS system and 5 minutes in the high voltage electrical system. If unable to perform the recommended disabling procedures, found in the following slides, proceed with caution as there is no assurance that the high voltage electrical system, SRS or fuel pump are disabled!
HYBRID CAR NEED TO KNOW EMERGENCY FACTS If you are unable to perform the recommended disabling procedures, found in the following slides, proceed with caution as there is no assurance that the high voltage electrical system, SRS or fuel pump are disabled!
HYBRID CAR EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Extrication Chock the wheels first! • Turn off ignition switch and remove key (if so equipped). This turns off the engine and the motor, which prevents electric current from flowing into the cables from the motor or high-voltage battery, and, turns off power to the airbags and the seatbelt pre-tensioner. • After turning off the ignition switch, it is recommended that emergency responders remove the key (if so equipped) so the car cannot be inadvertently restarted. To let everyone at the crash scene know the key is removed, give the key to the I/C, who will make a general announcement regarding the key. At this point, the high-voltage system has been isolated. This improves responder safety in and around the vehicle. • The next step is to shut down the 12V electrical system on the hybrid just as we typically do on any conventional vehicle involve din an MVA.