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Working for Change. Standards SS 4.4 “Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850’s

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Working for Change


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    1. Working for Change Standards SS 4.4 “Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850’s WS 2.4 “Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most significant details.”

    2. “Cesar Chavez: Leader of California’s Migrant Workers” Press box to watch video.

    3. “Cesar Chavez: Leader of California’s Migrant Workers” • What problems did migrant farm workers have?

    4. “Cesar Chavez: Leader of California’s Migrant Workers” • What problems did migrant farm workers have? • What are rights?

    5. “Cesar Chavez: Leader of California’s Migrant Workers” • What problems did migrant farm workers have? • What are rights? • What did Cesar Chavez do to help the farm workers?

    6. “Cesar Chavez: Leader of California’s Migrant Workers” • What problems did migrant farm workers have? • What are rights? • What did Cesar Chavez do to help the farm workers? • What would you do to help?

    7. Objective • You and two of your classmates have been sent back to 1965 to learn about the life and legacy of Cesar Chavez. All you need with you is a pencil and some blank paper. • Before you can be sent back to present time, you and your classmates have a task to complete. Your task is to write a newspaper article. • Each of you has a role. One needs to be the reporter, one the writer, and the other needs to be the editor. Here are descriptions of the roles:

    8. Roles • Reporter: The reporter takes lots of detailed notes about what you read, hear, and see while investigating the life and legacy of Cesar Chavez. Along with the writer and editor, the reporter will use these notes to figure out what to put in the article.

    9. Roles • Writer: The writer types the article in a Word Document. The writer works with the reporter and the editor to decide what information goes into the article. The writer types as the group discusses.

    10. Roles • Editor: The editor works with the reporter and writer to decide what information goes into the article. After it is finished, the editor reads over the article at the end to make sure everything is typed correctly. This includes making sure the information is correct and checking for spelling and punctuation.

    11. Roles • Reporter • Writer • Editor

    12. The Need for Changep. 393 What causes did Californians protest?

    13. Martin Luther King, Jr., gave his most famous speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. He said, “I have a dream that…children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” What conditions did Californians protest?

    14. Vocabulary • segregation

    15. Vocabulary • segregation

    16. Vocabulary segregation: The practice of keeping groups of people apart from one another.

    17. Vocabulary • segregation: The practice of keeping groups of people apart from one another. • civil rights

    18. Vocabulary • civil rights

    19. Vocabulary • civil rights: The rights of all people to be treated equally under the law.

    20. Vocabulary • segregation: The practice of keeping groups of people apart from one another. • civil rights: The rights of all people to be treated equally under the law. • demonstrations:

    21. Vocabulary • demonstrations

    22. Vocabulary • demonstrations: Large gatherings of people who want to call attention to a problem.

    23. Vocabulary • segregation: The practice of keeping groups of people apart from one another. • civil rights: The rights of all people to be treated equally under the law. • demonstrations: Large gatherings of people who want to call attention to a problem.

    24. What conditions did Californians protest? The Need for Change In the last chapter, you read about California’s economic boom after World War II. However, many African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans did not share equally in this success. They faced segregation, a policy of keeping different groups of people separate. In the 1950’s people all over the United States began fighting over segregation and other forms of discrimination. Martin Luther King, Jr., led the movement to gain civil rights for African Americans in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Civil rights are the rights granted to every citizen by the United States Constitution. African Americans were denied the right to vote. To fight for this right and other rights, King organized peaceful demonstrations. A demonstration is a large gathering of people who want to call attention to a problem. Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 393

    25. What conditions did Californians protest? African Americans were denied the right to vote. To fight for this right and other rights, King organized peaceful demonstrations. A demonstration is a large gathering of people who want to call attention to a problem. Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 393

    26. What conditions did Californians protest? African Americans were denied the right to vote. To fight for this right and other rights, King organized peaceful demonstrations. A demonstration is a large gathering of people who want to call attention to a problem. Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 393

    27. The Need for Change In the last chapter, you read about California’s economic boom after World War II. However, many African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans did not share equally in this success. They faced segregation, a policy of keeping different groups of people separate. In the 1950’s people all over the United States began fighting over segregation and other forms of discrimination. Martin Luther King, Jr., led the movement to gain civil rights for African Americans in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Civil rights are the rights granted to every citizen by the United States Constitution. African Americans were denied the right to vote. To fight for this right and other rights, King organized peaceful demonstrations. A demonstration is a large gathering of people who want to call attention to a problem. How did people fight segregation? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 393

    28. African Americans were denied the right to vote. To fight for this right and other rights, King organized peaceful demonstrations. A demonstration is a large gathering of people who want to call attention to a problem. How did people fight segregation? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 393

    29. African Americans were denied the right to vote. To fight for this right and other rights, King organized peaceful demonstrations. A demonstration is a large gathering of people who want to call attention to a problem. How did people fight segregation? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 393

    30. Civil Rights in California Jesse Unruh was born on a farm in Kansas. Following World War II, he moved to California, went to college, and entered politics. As a member of the State Assembly, he wrote the Unruh Civil Rights Act of 1959. This important law made it illegal for restaurants, hotels, and other businesses to refuse to serve African Americans and other minorities. It also made it illegal for landlords to choose their renters based on race. Slow Gains for African Americans Despite the new law, progress in civil rights came slowly. Some landlords still refused to rent to minority families. Then in 1963, state assemblyman William Byron Rumford helped pass the Rumford Fair Housing Act. This law made it illegal to discriminate against home buyers based on a person’s skin color. Meanwhile, the United States Congress passed a series of civil rights laws. These laws guaranteed equal opportunity in housing, jobs, schools, public services. By the 1979s, African Americans has won important leadership positions in California. In 1966, Yvonne Braithwaite Burke Became the first African American women elected to the legislature. In 1973, Tom Bradley became the first African American mayor of Los Angeles. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 394

    31. Civil Rights in California Jesse Unruh was born on a farm in Kansas. Following World War II, he moved to California, went to college, and entered politics. As a member of the State Assembly, he wrote the Unruh Civil Rights Act of 1959. This important law made it illegal for restaurants, hotels, and other businesses to refuse to serve African Americans and other minorities. It also made it illegal for landlords to choose their renters based on race. Slow Gains for African Americans Despite the new law, progress in civil rights came slowly. Some landlords still refused to rent to minority families. Then in 1963, state assemblyman William Byron Rumford helped pass the Rumford Fair Housing Act. This law made it illegal to discriminate against home buyers based on a person’s skin color. Meanwhile, the United States Congress passed a series of civil rights laws. These laws guaranteed equal opportunity in housing, jobs, schools, public services. By the 1979s, African Americans has won important leadership positions in California. In 1966, Yvonne Braithwaite Burke Became the first African American women elected to the legislature. In 1973, Tom Bradley became the first African American mayor of Los Angeles. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 394

    32. Civil Rights in California Jesse Unruh was born on a farm in Kansas. Following World War II, he moved to California, went to college, and entered politics. As a member of the State Assembly, he wrote the Unruh Civil Rights Act of 1959. This important law made it illegal for restaurants, hotels, and other businesses to refuse to serve African Americans and other minorities. It also made it illegal for landlords to choose their renters based on race. Slow Gains for African Americans Despite the new law, progress in civil rights came slowly. Some landlords still refused to rent to minority families. Then in 1963, state assemblyman William Byron Rumford helped pass the Rumford Fair Housing Act. This law made it illegal to discriminate against home buyers based on a person’s skin color. Meanwhile, the United States Congress passed a series of civil rights laws. These laws guaranteed equal opportunity in housing, jobs, schools, public services. By the 1979s, African Americans has won important leadership positions in California. In 1966, Yvonne Braithwaite Burke Became the first African American women elected to the legislature. In 1973, Tom Bradley became the first African American mayor of Los Angeles. Which two California civil rights laws were passed in the 1950’s and 1960’s? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 394

    33. Civil Rights in California Jesse Unruh was born on a farm in Kansas. Following World War II, he moved to California, went to college, and entered politics. As a member of the State Assembly, he wrote the Unruh Civil Rights Act of 1959. This important law made it illegal for restaurants, hotels, and other businesses to refuse to serve African Americans and other minorities. It also made it illegal for landlords to choose their renters based on race. Slow Gains for African Americans Despite the new law, progress in civil rights came slowly. Some landlords still refused to rent to minority families. Then in 1963, state assemblyman William Byron Rumford helped pass the Rumford Fair Housing Act. This law made it illegal to discriminate against home buyers based on a person’s skin color. Meanwhile, the United States Congress passed a series of civil rights laws. These laws guaranteed equal opportunity in housing, jobs, schools, public services. By the 1979s, African Americans has won important leadership positions in California. In 1966, Yvonne Braithwaite Burke Became the first African American women elected to the legislature. In 1973, Tom Bradley became the first African American mayor of Los Angeles. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 394

    34. Native Americans Protest In the 1960’s thousands of Native Americans moved to California from other states. Here they faced discrimination in jobs, schools, and housing. In November 1969, a group called Indians for All Nations began a protest. They took a boat to Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and set up a kitchen and a school. They refused to leave. Richard Oakes, a leader of the group, called for the government to set up a Native American museum and educational center on the island. The government would not agree to meet their demands. After 18 months, police forced the last protestors from the island. However, the group did raise awareness of Native American rights. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 395

    35. Native Americans Protest In the 1960’s thousands of Native Americans moved to California from other states. Here they faced discrimination in jobs, schools, and housing. In November 1969, a group called Indians for All Nations began a protest. They took a boat to Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and set up a kitchen and a school. They refused to leave. Richard Oakes, a leader of the group, called for the government to set up a Native American museum and educational center on the island. The government would not agree to meet their demands. After 18 months, police forced the last protestors from the island. However, the group did raise awareness of Native American rights. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 395

    36. Vocabulary • labor union:

    37. Vocabulary • labor union:

    38. Vocabulary • labor union: A group of workers who organize to make agreements with their employers.

    39. Vocabulary • labor union: A group of workers who organize to make agreements with their employers. • boycott:

    40. Vocabulary • boycott:

    41. Vocabulary • boycott: A refusal to do business with a company.

    42. Vocabulary • labor union: A group of workers who organize to make agreements with their employers. • boycott: A refusal to do business with a company.

    43. Boycotts and Protests Cesar Chavez had worked on farms since he was a boy. He knew that workers spent long days picking crops for little money. He thought they could ask for better wages and working conditions if they formed a labor union. A labor union is a group of workers who make agreements with their employers to improve their working conditions. In 1962, Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized the National Farm Workers Association. Huerta had been a teacher. Many of her students were the children of farm workers. In 1965 their union joined another union. The two groups refused to work for grape growers until wages were raised. The workers marched 340 miles from Delano to Sacramento to bring attention to their cause. Finally the growers agreed to raise wages. Some farm owners used violence to try to stop the union. But Chavez refused to answer violence with violence. In 1968, his union, now called the United Farm Workers, called for a worldwide boycott of California grapes. A boycott is when people refuse to buy a certain product. This boycott ended in 1970, when 26 grape growers agreed to improve working conditions for grape pickers. Chavez died in 1993. Today Californians remember him every March 31 on the Cesar Chavez Day of Service and Learning. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 396

    44. Boycotts and Protests Cesar Chavez had worked on farms since he was a boy. He knew that workers spent long days picking crops for little money. He thought they could ask for better wages and working conditions if they formed a labor union. A labor union is a group of workers who make agreements with their employers to improve their working conditions. In 1962, Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized the National Farm Workers Association. Huerta had been a teacher. Many of her students were the children of farm workers. In 1965 their union joined another union. The two groups refused to work for grape growers until wages were raised. The workers marched 340 miles from Delano to Sacramento to bring attention to their cause. Finally the growers agreed to raise wages. Some farm owners used violence to try to stop the union. But Chavez refused to answer violence with violence. In 1968, his union, now called the United Farm Workers, called for a worldwide boycott of California grapes. A boycott is when people refuse to buy a certain product. This boycott ended in 1970, when 26 grape growers agreed to improve working conditions for grape pickers. Chavez died in 1993. Today Californians remember him every March 31 on the Cesar Chavez Day of Service and Learning. What conditions did Californians protest? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 396

    45. Boycotts and Protests Cesar Chavez had worked on farms since he was a boy. He knew that workers spent long days picking crops for little money. He thought they could ask for better wages and working conditions if they formed a labor union. A labor union is a group of workers who make agreements with their employers to improve their working conditions. In 1962, Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized the National Farm Workers Association. Huerta had been a teacher. Many of her students were the children of farm workers. In 1965 their union joined another union. The two groups refused to work for grape growers until wages were raised. The workers marched 340 miles from Delano to Sacramento to bring attention to their cause. Finally the growers agreed to raise wages. Some farm owners used violence to try to stop the union. But Chavez refused to answer violence with violence. In 1968, his union, now called the United Farm Workers, called for a worldwide boycott of California grapes. A boycott is when people refuse to buy a certain product. This boycott ended in 1970, when 26 grape growers agreed to improve working conditions for grape pickers. Chavez died in 1993. Today Californians remember him every March 31 on the Cesar Chavez Day of Service and Learning. What is the United Farm Workers? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 396

    46. Boycotts and Protests Cesar Chavez had worked on farms since he was a boy. He knew that workers spent long days picking crops for little money. He thought they could ask for better wages and working conditions if they formed a labor union.A labor union is a group of workers who make agreements with their employers to improve their working conditions. In 1962, Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized the National Farm Workers Association. Huerta had been a teacher. Many of her students were the children of farm workers. In 1965 their union joined another union. The two groups refused to work for grape growers until wages were raised. The workers marched 340 miles from Delano to Sacramento to bring attention to their cause. Finally the growers agreed to raise wages. Some farm owners used violence to try to stop the union. But Chavez refused to answer violence with violence. In 1968, his union, now called the United Farm Workers, called for a worldwide boycott of California grapes. A boycott is when people refuse to buy a certain product. This boycott ended in 1970, when 26 grape growers agreed to improve working conditions for grape pickers. Chavez died in 1993. Today Californians remember him every March 31 on the Cesar Chavez Day of Service and Learning. What is the United Farm Workers? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 396

    47. Boycotts and Protests Cesar Chavez had worked on farms since he was a boy. He knew that workers spent long days picking crops for little money. He thought they could ask for better wages and working conditions if they formed a labor union. A labor union is a group of workers who make agreements with their employers to improve their working conditions. In 1962, Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized the National Farm Workers Association. Huerta had been a teacher. Many of her students were the children of farm workers. In 1965 their union joined another union. The two groups refused to work for grape growers until wages were raised. The workers marched 340 miles from Delano to Sacramento to bring attention to their cause. Finally the growers agreed to raise wages. Some farm owners used violence to try to stop the union. But Chavez refused to answer violence with violence. In 1968, his union, now called the United Farm Workers, called for a worldwide boycott of California grapes. A boycott is when people refuse to buy a certain product. This boycott ended in 1970, when 26 grape growers agreed to improve working conditions for grape pickers. Chavez died in 1993. Today Californians remember him every March 31 on the Cesar Chavez Day of Service and Learning. What action did farm workers take in 1965? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 396

    48. Boycotts and Protests Cesar Chavez had worked on farms since he was a boy. He knew that workers spent long days picking crops for little money. He thought they could ask for better wages and working conditions if they formed a labor union. A labor union is a group of workers who make agreements with their employers to improve their working conditions. In 1962, Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized the National Farm Workers Association. Huerta had been a teacher. Many of her students were the children of farm workers. In 1965 their union joined another union. The two groups refused to work for grape growers until wages were raised. The workers marched 340 miles from Delano to Sacramento to bring attention to their cause. Finally the growers agreed to raise wages. Some farm owners used violence to try to stop the union. But Chavez refused to answer violence with violence. In 1968, his union, now called the United Farm Workers, called for a worldwide boycott of California grapes. A boycott is when people refuse to buy a certain product. This boycott ended in 1970, when 26 grape growers agreed to improve working conditions for grape pickers. Chavez died in 1993. Today Californians remember him every March 31 on the Cesar Chavez Day of Service and Learning. What action did farm workers take in 1965? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 396

    49. Vocabulary • Vietnam War: A war (1954-1975) in which the United States fought on the side of South Vietnam in its fight against North Vietnam.

    50. Students Speak Out In the late 1960s and early 1970's, students at Berkeley and the other California campuses protested United States involvement in the Vietnam War. This war, between North Vietnam and South Vietnam, lasted from 1954 to 1975. The United States entered the war in 1964 on the side of South Vietnam. Students and other people called for the United States to end its support of South Vietnam. In addition, many young people did not believe they should serve as soldiers during the war when they could not even vote. The United States left Vietnam in 1973. As a result of the powerful voice of the student protests, changes to voting rights were made. On July 5, 1971 the Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the Constitution was passed. It lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. It added 11 million possible voters. Half of these voters cast their ballots in the 1972 presidential election. The Women's Movement In the 1960s, women working the same jobs as men earned less than half of what men earned. Women were also kept out of many types of jobs. Many people thought this was unfair. They started a movement for equal rights for women. It became known as the “women's movement.” The women's movement led to the passage of national laws that banned discrimination against women. The laws called for women to receive equal pay for similar jobs. The laws also made sure that women could not be kept from taking jobs of any kind. What did the Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the Constitution do? Read to find outCalifornia Vistas: Our Golden State page 397