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What is expectancy theory?. The ET deals with motivation and management. Vroom’s theory assumes that behaviour is a result from conscious choices among alternatives . The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain .

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what is expectancy theory
What is expectancy theory?
  • The ET deals with motivation and management.
  • Vroom’s theory assumes that behaviour is a result from conscious choices among alternatives.
  • The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain.
  • Vroom suggested that the relationship between people’s behaviour at work and their goals was not as simple as first imagined by other scientists.
  • Vroom realized that an employee’s performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills,knowledge, experience and abilities.
  • The ET says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations.

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et expectations
ET expectations:
  • There is a positive correlation between effort and performance
  • Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward
  • The reward will satisfy an important need
  • The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile

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et is based upon the following three beliefs
ET is based upon the following three beliefs:
  • Valence: Refers to emotional orientations which people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards). The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic (money, promotion, free time, benefits) or intrinsic (satisfaction) rewards. Management must discover what employees appreciate.
  • Expectancy: Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training or supervision the employees need.
  • Instrumentality: The perception of employees whether they will actually receive what they desire, even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of it.

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expectancy theory vroom
Expectancy theory (Vroom)
  • Vroom suggests that an employee’s belief about expectancy, instrumentality and valence interact psychologically. In this way they create a motivational force, such that the employee will act in a way that brings pleasure and avoids pain.
  • This force can be calculated via a formula:
  • Motivation = Valence x Expectancy (Instrumentality)
  • This formula can be used to indicate and predict things as: job satisfaction, occupational choice, the likelihood of staying in a job and the effort that one might expend at work.

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