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Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users

Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users

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Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users

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  1. Web Site Interactivity& Gratifications Expectations among Users Presented at the AoIR5 Conference University of Sussex, U.K 20, September 2004 Yaron Ariel University of Haifa

  2. Outline • Uses and Gratifications a relevancy approach • U&G basic assumptions & criticisms • Defining Gratification Expectancy • Interactivity • Web sites’ Interactivity • Expectations towards Web sites’ interactivity • Some research evidence • Some implications

  3. Uses and Gratifications - Relevancy • Dominant in Users/Audience studies • Human centered approach • Re-mentioned when new media develops • Electronic Bulletin Board, Pager, Interactive TV, Cellular phone, ICQ • New media & its various uses • Enables comparison • Traditional Media Vs New Media

  4. U&G Assumptions & Criticisms • Individuals are active & rational players • Using the media in order to obtain gratifications (Katz, Blumler & Gurevitch, 1974) Main Criticisms: • Assumption of rationality • Or maybe Habitual, Ritual, Normative? • Humanistic Approach • Goal oriented towards fulfillments and growth? • Functionalism Oriented • Categorization as status quo • Introspective Capabilities • Can they really tell us?

  5. Expectations towards traditional media Genres conventions (Content, Style & Form) Expectations towards Web Sites Functionalities • ExpectancyDifferentiate Sought & Obtained gratification (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 1982) Emphasizing ExpectancyTowards what?

  6. Gratification Expectancy A persons' belief that using a web site can fulfill specific voids in his/her life

  7. Interactivity • Various definitions of Interactivity • Rafaeli’s Definitions of Interactivity(Rafaeli, 1988) • characteristic of communication settings not the medium • emphasizing the interaction between users • Considering levels of interactivity Interactivity - A functionality that facilitates users' expectations? Defining Web sites interactivity

  8. Interactivity operationalized Three identical news-portal ‘look-alike’ web-sites Except - Declarative Interactivity No feature of message transmission. Reactive Interactivity Includes an Electronic Forum within. Full Interactivity Includes a Synchronic chat.

  9. Hypothesis Does & to what extent the interactivity that Web Sites enabled their users is relating to their expectations gratifications? H1 Positive correlation between thelevel of Web Sites' interactivity& thelevel of EG’s H2 Significantdifferencebetween users' experience levelwithin theirlevel of EG’salonglevels of interactivity. H3 Positive correlation between any individual EGto others. [Variables: Socio-Demographic, Usages characteristics & attitude towards internet]

  10. Research Design • Sample of 464 participants • Non representative • Personal codes with web address • Web questionnaire • Simulation • Example of a web site • Likert scale statements • Semantic differential

  11. Results • High gratifications expectations in all three sites • High to low expectancy: • Cognitive, Integrative, Escapist & Emotional • Advanced users Vs Whole Sample • Expectancy ----Web experience • Gratifications Expectancies are highly correlated

  12. More Results • Women have higher GE’s as compared to men • Income, Martial status, Education -no impact • General positive attitude toward the Internet Higher gratification expectancy [Using logistic regression]

  13. Discussions & Implications • Examine Subjective expectations & perception of gratifications. • Study Medium functionalities - rather than studying its conventions • Web user's usages relate characteristics -rather than other personal factors Expectations gratifications are in the beholders eyes

  14. Thanks Http:// Yaron Ariel University of Haifa

  15. References • Ebersole, S. (2000). "Uses and Gratification of the Web among students".JCMC. 6(1)

  16. Heeter, C. (1989). Implications of new interactive technologies for conceptualizing communication. In: J. L. Salvaggio., J. Bryant (Eds.). Media use in the information age: Emerging patterns of adoption and consumer use. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum • Kang, M.H. (2002). "Interactivity in television: use and impact of an interactive program guide". Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 46(3), 330- 316

  17. Katz, E., Blumler, J.G., Gurevitch, M. (1973). "Uses and Gratifications research". Public Opinion Quarterly. 37(4), 509-523 • Kwasnik, H.B., Crowston, K., Nilan, M., Roussinov, D. (2001). "Identifying document genre to improve Web search effectiveness". Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 27(2)

  18. Leung, Louis & Wei, R (1998). "The gratifications of pager use: Sociability, information seeking, entertainment, utility, and fashion and status"Telematics and Infomatics, 15(4): 253-264.

  19. Leung, L., Wei, R (2000). "More than just talk on the move: Uses and Gratifications of cellular phone". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. 77(2): 308-320. • Liebes, T. (2003). "Herzog's "On borrowed experience": Its place in the debate over the active audience". In: Katz, E., Peters, D.J., Liebes, T., Orloff, A. (Eds.). Canonic texts in media research: Are there any? Should there be? How about these? Cambridge: Polity Press & Blackwell Publishing

  20. Lin, A. C. (2002). "Perceived gratifications of online media service use among potential users". Telematics and Informatics. 19(1), 3-19 • Livaditi, J., Vassilopoulou, K., Lougos, C., Chorianopoulos, K. (2002). "Needs and Gratifications for interactive TV application: Implications for designers". Presented at the 36th Hawaii international Conference on System Sciences

  21. Luo, X. (2002). "Uses and Gratifications theory and E-consumer behaviors: A structural equation modeling study". Journal of Interactive Advertising. 2(2) • Palmgreen, P., Rayburn, J.D. (1982). "Gratifications sought and media exposure: an expectancy model". Communication research. 9(4), 561-580

  22. Rafaeli, S. (1988)."Interactivity: From new media to communication". In: Sage Annual Review of Communication Research: Advancing Communication Science, Vol. 16. R. P. Hawkins, J. M. Wiemann., S. Pingree. (Eds). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage • Rafaeli, S., Sudweeks, F. (1997). "Networked Interactivity" Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 2(4)

  23. Ruggiero, E. T. (2000). "Uses and gratification theory in the 21st century". Mass Communication & Society. 3(1), 3-37 • Schultz, T. (2000). "Mass Media and the concept of interactivity: An exploratory study of online Forums and reader E-Mail". Media, Culture & Society. 22 (2), 205-221

  24. Sherry, J., Lucas, K., Rechtsteiner, S., Brooks, C., Wilson, B. (2001). "Video Game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference". Paper presented at the ICA convention May 2001