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Natural Sciences and Social Responsibilities of Leading Universities: Pacific Case Vladimir I. Kurilov, S.J.D., LL.D.President, Far Eastern National UniversityAPRU APM Open Forum, 29 June 2009
We all are united by global challenges and global problems… • The economic crisis • Pandemics • Hunger • Water, air, and soil pollution • Depletion of natural resources • Human ecosystem degradation • Genome modifications • … • UN • G8 • G20 • WTO • EU • APEC • APRU • … today we have: but are we really ready to produce adequate global answers?
The Russian philosopher Alexander Gerzen called the Pacific Ocean "the Mediterranean of the future humankind“ (1858). However, the integration of Pacific society is still far behind the integration of European and other Mediterranean countries; political and economic structures like the EU will be impossible in the Pacific Rim for many decades. Pacific universities are responsible for creating integrated regional economic, cultural, educational and research societies of the future. APRU should be a flagship of these activities. • Current international regulatory systems are not effective enough to cope with the economic crisis and global environmental problems, e.g. recent G20 initiatives and WTO guidelines to avoid protectionism. The global free market is an extended version of pre-depression American economy of 1920s • National regulatory systems produce well enforced national answers to international economic and environmental problems; but these answers sometimes contradict each other and do not compose a systematic global answer of humankind as a whole to global problems • Regional research-intensive systems like APRU are test beds for effective global systems of the future
Focus: World Ocean • The move to World Ocean biological and mineral resources, and the growing need for World Ocean environmental protection are among the most important long term trends of human civilization development. • This trend is an answer of our civilization to such global challenges as hunger, depletion of natural resources, and global ecological problems. Research of marine biota produces medicines and food important for future human health on the global level. • This trend requires innovative technologies, a highly qualified labor force, and international cooperation of a scale impossible earlier and hardly imaginable now. • The way to World Ocean resources is through multi-disciplinary research and mass higher education - through the leading research universities and through their effective international cooperation. • The Association of Pacific Rim Universities can and must be a powerful catalyst for these activities.
FENU Proposal: APRU World Ocean Institute • Ongoing APRU activities related to this proposal: 1st-5th Research Symposiums on Multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim - Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcanic and Geological Hazards and Approaches for Mitigation • Possible extensions: annual APRU World Ocean Symposiums, APRU World Ocean Research and Education Center, and APRU World Ocean Institute • Should we use “Pacific Ocean” or “World Ocean” in the titles of these initiatives? Our preference is World Ocean, because it is more related to the global impact of our fundamental and applied research, even though it is sometimes focused on the Pacific Ocean or its particular region • Sustainable development, integrated solution of economic and ecological problems • Inter-disciplinary, comprehensive, cooperative approach of Pacific Rim leading research universities to World Ocean as a complex inter-dependent system; this approach must deal with biological, geological, physical, chemical, environmental, and various other issues related to the World Ocean • The same approach should apply to human projects of using and changing this system FENU can host and coordinate this activity in its World Ocean Innovative Technological Center. Why we are able and interested to do this?
World Ocean Innovative Technological Center, a joint subdivision of FENU and the Russian Academy of Sciences
Comanche, FENU’s deepwater (up to 6 km) robot: environmental and mineral resources research – produced by SUB-ATLANTIC Co., Great Britain World Ocean Innovative Technological Center: Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Approach • Biological, physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, environmental, historical, judicial, and archeological issues are studied in relation to World Ocean as a whole and its various specific regions: complex systematic approach to complex phenomena • Combination and interaction of fundamental and applied research • R&D activities of the Center include search for underwater mineral resources, detailed underwater mapping of various parameters, forecasts of dangerous and catastrophic events and processes, navigation safety research, monitoring of biological resources, production of medicines and biologically active compounds; and hydro-meteorological research development of marine research technologies • These activities are related to the seashore coast, shelf, continental slope and bottom of the Ocean and its seas • The core of the technical equipment for this research are remote controlled underwater robots
Recent FENU Research Results in Marine Biology and Biotechnology FENU tries to answer global challenges with research at the cutting edge of technology; we want to share the most interesting and important results of this research obtained by one subdivision of the FENU World Ocean Innovative Technological Center – the Academy of Ecology, Marine Biology and Biotechnology…
New type of vaccines composed of natural marine substances: lipids and saponins Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Purpose of the research:fundamental research in the field of immunology and vaccinology to produce more effective immunological adjuvants and new types of nontoxic immune-stimulating complexes(ISCOM’s). Results:A new carrier of subunit protein antigens was developed that demonstrates more potential immunological properties than commonISCOM’sand Freund’s adjuvant; this carrier was named TI-complex. Immunological research shows high safety and great immunomodulating potentialof TI-complexes and their components.TI-complexes are able to enhance significantly theimmune response against bacterial antigens. This development combines the increasing efficacy andsafety of antigen preparations. ISCOM-based vaccines form a new type of vaccines. Conventional ISCOMs include artificialnanoparticles, composed of saponinQuil A, cholesterol and phospholipids(usually from egg yolk). These particles have size about 40 nm, a typical size of virions. ISCOM is an effective media for presentation of antigens to immunosites; it is also a potent adjuvant.
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology has developed immune-stimulating nanocarriers of subunit antigens that have super-molecular structure of a new type. These carriers are composed of well-investigated biologically active compounds derived from marine hydrobionts. Components of these carriers are highly safe for humans and have greater biological properties in comparison to well-known analogs. Application of these carriers in the field of development of new subunit vaccines promises significant cost reduction. In 2008, three patents have been issued for these research results: Patent No. 2319506(application No. 2005131645/13(035476)) Patent holder: Far Eastern National University Authors: N.M. Sanina, A.M. Popov, I.A. Li, E.Ya. Kostetskiy, A.B. Tsybulsky, and V.L. Shnyrov Patent No.2322259( application No. 2006123270/13(025252)) Patent holder: Far Eastern National University Authors: A.M. Popov, I.A. Li, E.Ya. Kostetskiy, N.M. Sanina, A.B. Tsybulsky, V.L. Shnyrov, and A.N. Mazeika Patent No.2311926 (application No. 2006104795\13(005189)) Patent holder: Far Eastern National UniversityAuthors: E.Ya. Kostetskiy,A.M. Popov, N.M. Sanina I.A. Li, A.B. Tsybulsky, and V.L. Shnyrov Electron photomicrography of conventional ISCOM-matrices (Kersten, Crommelin, 1995) Powerful immune-stimulating nanocarriers have been produced from Pacific marine hydrobionts; these results will be used in medical applications. Electron photomicrography of TI-complexes
Lipids of marine invertebrates are used as potential cryoprotectors Purpose of the research:screening of new medicines with potential cryoprotector properties and optimization of their concentration in cryoprotective mixtures that provide maximum cell viability of marine hydrobionts after cryopreservation. The findings provide the basis for creation of new cryoprotectors for cells of marine hydrobionts. It is an essential step to creation of an animal cryobank. In 2008, a patent was issued for these research results: Patent No. 2314687(applicationNo. 2005131645/13(035476)) Patent holders: Far Eastern National University and Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesAuthors: N.A. Odintsova, A.V. Boroda, N.V. Ageenko, and E. Ya. Kostetskiy Impressive results were obtained in the field of marine hydrobiont cryopreservation. These results will help to protect and study the biological diversity of the Ocean; they are important for survival of many marine species.
Department of Cell Biology Purpose of the research: development of the biopolymer matrixes which program chemical and mechanical induction of stem cell differentiation to produce artificial tissue implants • Background: • Designing of artificial tissue implants based on the stem cell technology is one of the most challenging tasks of modern biomedical science and technology. • The use of stem cells as direct instruments for tissue reparation, treatment of degenerative diseases and posttraumatic pathologies can be dangerous due to the stem cells potency for cancer genesis, and ineffective because it often doesn't lead to forming the appropriate functional cell types. • The technology will produce heterogeneous micropatterned nanoscaffolds basically consisting of proteins, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates using the high precision multi-channel jet printing and high efficiency electrotransfer. • Application of these matrixes as a substrate for cell layers and three-dimensional associations will provide an opportunity to produce the artificial tissue implants. • Such matrixes will act as the chemical and mechanical inducers of the stem cells differentiation, allow of constructing gradient fields for directed cell growth and promote creation of an artificial tissue pattern of the implants. FENU researchers develop unique biopolymer matrixes obtained from marine invertebrates; these matrixes will be used for stem cell production of artificial tissue implants.
Technology of multichannel high-precision jet printing: Stem cell applications in medicine will give people of the current and future generations many additional decades of high quality life; marine biota will help these technologies to become more safe and effective through nano-sized processes. to the solid or gel warp to the polymer film Putting the stem cell suspension on the matrix Using the constructed tissue implant Differentiated cells Induced stem cells Proteins of fibrillar matrix Proteins – differentiation inducers (1sttype) Proteins – differentiation inducers (2ndtype) Glycoproteinsconnecting matrix fibrilles Amorphous matrix consisting of glycopolymer and mineral substances Tissue implant
Micropatterned nanoheterogeneous matrixes may direct stem cells to multiple pathways: Stem cell active proliferation Growth retardation with pluripotency preservation One of the matrix types Directed growth and differentiation along the composite tracks Neuron formation for further tissue implants
Department of Marine Biology and Aquaculture Purpose of the research: identifying trends and reasons of changes of coastal ecosystem biodiversity in the Sea of Japan and developing methods to identify their taxonomic composition and relationships The structure and hierarchy of temporal populations of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) was researched. The species composition of the following families in the north-west part of the Sea of Japan was studied: Stichaeidae, Pleuronectidae, Syngnathidae. Molecular phylogenetic study of cyprinoid fish and flatfish in the waters of the Russian Far East was performed. The structure of coastal ecosystems was studied along with composition of autumn zooplankton of the North-West part of the Sea of Japan in the shallow bay Vytyaz’ (within Peter the Great Bay) and Kievka (northern part of Primorsky region). Intensive FENU research is focused on the protection of marine ecosystem biodiversity.
Department of Botany Purpose of the research: protection of seashore plant communities of the Russian Far East and adjacent countries Monitoring studies of flora were performed at previous test areas along the pipeline of the Sakhalin-2 project. New test areas were established at aquatic and swamp regions; conditions of rare and endangered species of plants were measured. The Department of Botany continues its collaboration with the National University of Chonbuk (Korean Republic), conducting their joint research of moss. Collection of 1,000 floral specimens from Eastern Asia were identified, handling of specimens of the family Ericaceae and identification of herbarium was performed for the monograph dedicated to Korean flora. More than 800 herbarium speciments were identified. Simultaneous solution of economic and ecological problems, a typical task of our time, was used for the famous Sakhalin-2 oil & gas extraction project; FENU researchers were responsible for the ecological component of this project.
Thin Film Laboratory Nanotechnologies Research and Education Center The research identified technological parameters of nano-size multi-layer films that allow to reduce the size of magnet domains by 5 times in relation to one-layer films to 430 nm. Patent application has been submitted for these research results. Ultra-thin multi-layer iron/semiconductor nanogeterostructures were produced requiring 10 times less magnet field level for magnetic reversal in relation to one-layer films. Magnetic nano-points sized about 100 nm were studied for developing ultra-dense data recording media. We pay a special attention to development of research in nano-technologies; it is a real solution to mineral resource depletion problem. FENU’s research team in this field, one of the leading in Russia, is specialized in multi-layer films of nano-level.
FAR EASTERN NATIONAL/FEDERAL UNIVERSITY Russian Island Campus, Stage 1 (2008 - 2012) Conference Center(85,000 m2): Institute of Oriental Studies, Institute of Russian Language and Culture, Institute of Foreign Languages, Institute of History, Philosophy and Culture (up to 4,200 students) Press Center (40,000 m2): Institute of Mass Communications, Far Eastern Institute of Innovative Technologies and Quality, Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science (up to 3,300 students) Dormatories and Apartments (295,000 m2): Dorms for 9,000 students and apartments for 1,000 faculty members, researchers and staff In total, the stage 1 campus infrastructure will support face-to-face higher education for 12,000 students, including up to 1,000 international students Degree programs in 34 specialties will be provided on this campus The opportunities of FENU participation in APRU research and education activities, including World Ocean studies, will be considerably increased in the near future. In 2009, FENU will become the 3rd federal university of Russia; by 2012 FENU will build the best modern university campus of Russia, capable to host 6,000 participants of APEC 2012 Summit. The construction of this campus started in April 2009. But much more important than the campus construction, is the federal program of all-dimensional FENU development, including purchase of unique research equipment. The first federal funds transfer for this purpose was received by FENU in May 2009.
FAR EASTERN NATIONAL/FEDERAL UNIVERSITY Russian Island Campus, Stage 2 (2012 - 2025) FENU Russian Island Campus extension has been planned in detail up to 2025… Campus Zone A (Northern Campus Zone) Institute of Physical Education and Sports (500 students, 5,000 m2) International Business School, Schools of Finance and Economics (9000 students, 35,100 m2) Law School (4,000 students, 23,600 m2) Institute of Research Information – Fundamental Library (20,000 m2) Dorms for 13,000 students In total, the Northern Campus Zone infrastructure will support face-to-face higher education for 13,500 students Academic buildings: 88,700 m2 or more Campus Zone B (Central Campus Zone) Institute of Pedagogy and Education (2,200 students, 10,400 m2) Institute of Psychology and Social Science (2,000 students, 9,500 m2) Institute of Professional Development and Institute of Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Programs (7,000 m2) Institute of Pre-University Training, Lyceum (University-based high school) (4,000 students, 25,000 m2) Dorms for 6,000 students In total, the Central Campus Zone infrastructure will support face-to-face education for 8,200 students Academic buildings: 51,900 m2 or more
FAR EASTERN NATIONAL/FEDERAL UNIVERSITY Russian Island Campus, Stage 2, Zones C & D (2012 - 2025) Campus Zone C (Ajax Campus Zone) Institute of International Tourism and Hospitality (3,000 students, 16,500 m2) Vladivostok Institute of International Relations in the Pacific Rim (3,800 students, 21,000 m2) Institute of Art and Culture (1,000 students, 8,900 m2) Center of Public Political Technologies in the Pacific Rim and Asian Studies (2,300 m2) Pacific Center of Russian Language and Culture (2,000 m2) Center of International Education (2,000 students, 8,000 m2) Dorms for 7,500 students In total, the Ajax Campus Zone infrastructure will support face-to-face higher education for 9,800 students, including 3,000 international students Academic buildings: 58,700 m2 or more Campus Zone D (Southern Campus Zone) Mathematical and Natural Sciences schools (2,000 students, 40,000 m2) Medical School (4,000 students, 33,600 m2) Technical and Technological schools (6,000 students, 43,200 m2) Innovative Technological Center in Marine Sciences (21,800 m2) Innovative Technological Center of NanotechnologiesandNano-Engineering (11,800 m2) Biotechnology R&D Park (5,400 m2) Business Incubator (4,000 m2) Center of Technical Support (5,000 m2) Dorms for 11, 400 students 2,200 engineers and researchers will be employed in the Southern Campus Zone research centers In total, the Southern Campus Zone infrastructure will support face-to-face higher education for 12,000 students Academic buildings: 164,800 m2 or more
FAR EASTERN NATIONAL/FEDERAL UNIVERSITY Russian Island Campus, Stage 2 (2012 - 2025) Infrastructure for General Purposes: Main Administrative Building (10,000 m2) Apartments for faculty members, researchers and staff (840,000 m2) Kindergartens for 5,590 pupils General secondary schools for 12,040 students Specialized secondary schools for 1,290 students Clinics for 2,580 visitors per shift Supermarkets Summer Theater Sports Building Open air sports facilities Water Stadium In our new campus, we want to build a model of a sustainable, educated, high tech, interactive society of the future. Its location on a wild Pacific island near a city downtown, near the major Pacific sea gate of Russia is symbolic. We want to develop advanced, internationally integrated economy, at the same time protecting and studying the wild nature; we focus on the Pacific Ocean as an extending environment of the future humankind. Here, in the Pacific Rim, all of us university people must unite and interact in answer to global economic and ecological problems that we face and foresee.
The Place for APRU World Ocean Institute in the Structure of Other APRU Activities Annual Meetings: • Annual Presidents Meeting • Senior Staff Meeting Institutions: • APRU World Institute (AWI) • APRU IT Initiatives Standing Committee • APRU Ph.D. Student Summer Institute - APRU Business Deans Meeting’s initiative + APRU World Ocean Institute (AWOI) - FENU’s and Russian Academy of Sciences’ proposal) Human Capital Development Activities: • Chief Information Officers Forum • Education and Research Technology Forum • Deans Meetings • Fellows Program Symposiums: • Brain and Mind Symposium • Strategies for “Ageing in Place” • Research Symposiums on Multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim - Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcanic and Geological Hazards and Approaches for Mitigation + World Ocean Symposiums as annual events organized by AWOI Student-centric Activities: • Doctoral Students Conference (+ World Ocean section organized by AWOI) • Undergraduate Summer Program (+ World Ocean section organized by AWOI)
Possible Structure and Activities of APRU World Ocean Institute AWOI Standing Committee: • Multi-national • Includes coordinators representing each interested APRU member • Acts through the whole year via email exchange, teleconferences, and web site announcements AWOI may be formed as a consortium of APRU member university subdivisions (schools, research centers, laboratories), related to oceanic studies, such as the FENU World Ocean Innovative Technological Center Annual APRU World Ocean Symposium: • Varied locations; the hosting selection procedure similar to the other APRU annual events • Research Symposium on Multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim - Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcanic and Geological Hazards and Approaches for Mitigation may become a section of the extended symposium or remain a separate event Research and Educational Projects • Biological, physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, environmental, historical, judicial, archeological, and other issues related to the World Ocean • Projects including many APRU member universities and creation of an international network of researchers • Multi-disciplinary approaches should be encouraged The first APRU World Ocean Symposium can be hosted by FENU and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Summer 2010 or 2011
Thank You for Your Attention! Zhitkova Harbor Ajax Harbor Balka Harbor Paris Harbor Sapernyi Peninsula Website of the Far Eastern National University:http://fenu.ru FENU President’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org FENU International Dept. email:email@example.com