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Shallow Marine Carbonate Environments. "Carbonate sediments are born not made". Subtidal Carbonate Factory. Shallow (< 20m), subtidal, well circulated, marine shelf environment. Carbonate (mostly biogenic) sediment is transported both shoreward and basinward. Controls on Carbonate Facies.

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shallow marine carbonate environments

Shallow Marine Carbonate Environments

"Carbonate sediments are born not made"

subtidal carbonate factory
SubtidalCarbonate Factory
  • Shallow (< 20m), subtidal, well circulated, marine shelf environment.
  • Carbonate (mostly biogenic) sediment is transported both shoreward and basinward.
controls on carbonate facies
Controls on Carbonate Facies
  • Environmental conditions
    • Depth
    • Salinity
    • Temperature
    • Oxygenation
  • Faunal Succession
  • Currents/sorting
carbonate platforms depositional systems
Carbonate Platforms/Depositional Systems
  • Ramp
  • Rimmed Shelf
  • Epieric Platform
  • Isolated Platform
common carbonate platforms types
Common Carbonate Platforms Types

Carbonate Ramp

Rimmed Carbonate Platform

generic rimmed carbonate platform model x y z facies
Generic Rimmed Carbonate Platform Model "X", "Y", "Z" facies
  • Open shelf/basin
    • Re-sedimented, storm wave reworked carbonate turbidites and pelagic mudstone/wackestone
    • Slope facies breccias
    • Mixed redeposited shallow marine and pelagicfauna
generic rimmed carbonate platform model x facies
Generic Rimmed Carbonate Platform Model: "X“ facies
  • Outer Shelf ("Reefs"): high energy, wave washed barrier; "X"
    • biohermal "reef" and associated fragmental carbonate sands
    • carbonate grainstone/packstone and boundstone facies
    • algae, corals, sponges, stromataporoids, bryozoans, rudists
generic rimmed carbonate platform model y facies
Middle Shelf ("Subtidal Shelf Carbonates"): low energy, subtidal, back barrier; "carbonate factory"; "Y"

abundant biogenic carbonate mud production: good circulation, little temperature variation, abundant bioturbation

patch reefs and grainstone shoals

carbonate wackestone/ mudstone facies; peletal muds and "grapestone"

brachiopods,pelecypods, gastropods, crinoids, echinoderms

Generic Rimmed Carbonate Platform Model: "Y“ facies
generic rimmed carbonate platform model z facies
Inner shelf ("Peritidal Environments"): intertidal-supratidal with episodic storm-induced flooding; "Z"

extremes of temperature and salinity; hypo- to hypersaline (climate determined): highly variable physical environment

stromatolites and cryptalgal laminations common: algal mudstone

algal mats, dessication features, rip-up clasts and early lithification, oncolites, fenestrae, primary dolomite and evaporite deposits

Generic Rimmed Carbonate Platform Model: "Z" facies
carbonate facies
Carbonate Facies
  • South Florida Bahamas Platform
environmental concerns in carbonate dominated coasts
Environmental Concerns in Carbonate Dominated Coasts
  • Fresh water pollution
  • Temperature pollution
  • Sewage/chemical pollution