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PREJUDICE. CHAPTER 2. Ethnocentrism. The tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior to all others. Hate Crimes. Criminal offense committed because of the offender’s bias against a race, religion, ethnic / national origin group, or sexual orientation group. Hate Crimes.

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prejudice

PREJUDICE

CHAPTER 2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism
  • The tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior to all others

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

hate crimes
Hate Crimes
  • Criminal offense committed because of the offender’s bias against a race, religion, ethnic / national origin group, or sexual orientation group

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

hate crimes4
Hate Crimes
  • Hate crimes statistics act became law in 1990
  • Government definition of Hate Crime
    • An ordinary crime is a hate crime when offenders choose a victim because of some characteristic-for example, race, ethnicity, or religion-and provide evidence that hatred prompted them to commit the crime. Hate or bias crimes which is another name can also be based on hatred because of national origin or sexual orientation (Harlow 2005:1)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

prejudice discrimination
PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION
  • Prejudice
    • Negative attitude that rejects an entire group
  • Discrimination
    • Behavior that deprives a group of certain rights or opportunities
  • Ethnophaulism
    • Ethnic slurs that include derisive nicknames and include speaking about or to members of a particular group in a condescending way

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

merton s typology
Merton’s Typology
  • The unprejudiced nondiscriminator – or all weather liberal
  • The unprejudiced discriminator – or reluctant liberal
  • The prejudiced nondiscriminator – or timid bigot
  • The prejudiced discriminator – or all-weather bigot

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

lapiere s study
LaPiere’s Study
  • Merton’s typology points out that people do not always act as they believe
  • Richard LaPiere (1934, 1969)
    • Exposed the relationship between racial attitudes and social conduct
    • Traveled with a Chinese couple across the United States
    • Despite alleged intolerance, couple was treated courteously at hotels, motels, and restaurants

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

theories of prejudice
Theories of Prejudice
  • Four theories of prejudice
    • Scapegoating
      • occurs when an individual (group) projects and blames their own inadequacies or problems onto another group
    • Criticisms of Scapegoat Theory
      • Fails to explain why one group is used as a scapegoat and not another
      • Fails to explain why two individuals who share the same experience vary in tolerance
      • Does not explain personality differences

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide9
Authoritarian Personality
    • Adorno et al 1950 – study of authoritarianism and prejudice
    • Authoritarian Traits
        • Rigid adherence to conventional values
        • Uncritical acceptance of authority
        • Power and toughness
        • Intolerance and aggression toward those that don’t conform to conventional values
  • Criticisms of Authoritarian Personality
    • Focus on right wing groups and ignored left wing groups
    • Prejudice is related to other traits such as social class
    • Methodology employed
    • Focused on only extreme forms of prejudice and not on other forms of prejudice

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide10
Exploitation
    • Prejudice is rationally and economically motivated on the basis of self interests
    • The dominant group benefits from prejudice in that it is rooted within the exploitation of a group
  • Criticisms of Exploitation Theory
    • Not all subordinate groups are exploited equally
    • Prejudice occurs for reasons other than economic
    • Prejudice is not necessarily rational and may undermine dominant group interests

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide11
Normative
      • prejudice is patterned into the cultural norms and values of a group or society
      • Prejudice is a function of conforming to group norms of intolerance
  • All four theories of prejudice have contributed to its understanding

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

what are stereotypes
What are Stereotypes?
  • Stereotypes
    • Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account
    • Stereotypes are often exaggerated and negative images of a group
    • Stereotypes come from a variety of sources
        • a kernel of truth
        • the media
        • but power plays a role in their effect

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

power of stereotypes
Power of Stereotypes
  • Stereotypes often become a self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Affect how we feel
    • Affect how we relate to others
  • Stereotyping In Action: Racial Profiling
    • Any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the person’s behavior
    • Can be an explicit use of stereotypes

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

colorblind racism
Colorblind Racism
  • The use of race-neutral principles to defend the racially unequal status quo

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

the mood of the oppressed
The Mood of the Oppressed
  • Opinion polls have demonstrated interest in White attitudes on racial issues longer than they have measured views of subordinate groups
    • Bias of White researchers
    • Dominant group is more important to study because it is in a better position act on its beliefs
  • Prejudice and its affect on the self esteem of the subordinate group

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide16
Prejudice affects perceptions on fairness or equality of opportunity
    • Jobs, Housing, Justice
  • Research literature of the 1940’s through 1960’s emphasized the low self esteem of minorities
    • Should not assume minority status influences personality traits in a good or bad way
      • Such assumptions may create a stereotype
      • Characteristics of minority-group members are nor entirely the result of subordinate racial status
      • Many studies of personality imply that certain values are normal or preferable, but the values chosen are those of the dominant group

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

intergroup hostility
Intergroup Hostility
  • Content and extent of prejudice and stereotypes between ethnic - racial groups
  • Members of oppressed groups have adopted the widely held beliefs of the dominant culture concerning oppressed groups
  • Some groups feel they get along better with Whites than with other minority groups
    • Low-income people compete with each other and do not see the larger societal forces the contribute to their low status

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

reducing prejudice
Reducing Prejudice
  • Obvious way to eliminate prejudice is to eliminate its causes
    • The desire to exploit
    • The fear of being threatened
    • The need to blame others for one’s own failure
  • Answer rests with programs directed at society as a whole
  • Prejudice is attacked indirectly when discrimination is attacked

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide19
Despite contrary prevailing beliefs, prejudice can be legislated
    • Statutes and decisions do affect attitudes
  • Studies to determine how to change negative attitudes toward groups of people find the following encouraging
    • Education
    • Mass Media
    • Intergroup Contact
    • Workplace training programs

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

education and mass media
Education and Mass Media
  • Research consists of two types:
    • Artificially (experimentally) created situations
    • Studies that examine the influence on attitudes of motion pictures, television, and advertisements
  • Media has had both positive and negative effects depending on the program, situation and subjects exposed.
  • Well constructed programs tend to have an impact on reducing prejudice but to be effective they have to address the cognitive, affective, and action tendency dimensions

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide21
Some programs only focus on the cognitive or affective
  • Formal education is related to a reduction in prejudice
    • Formal education may not reduce prejudice uniformly within a group.
  • Mass media may reduce prejudice without the need of specially designed programs

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

avoidance versus friendship
Avoidance versus Friendship
  • It is difficult to quantify the extent of prejudice between groups
  • Measure the relative extent of prejudice between groups
  • Social Distance
    • The tendency to approach or withdraw from a racial group
  • Emory Bogardus’ Scale
    • used to measure social distance empirically and describes different degrees of social contact or social distance

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

trends in prejudice
Trends in Prejudice
  • Nationwide surveys consistently show growing support by Whites for integration
  • A change of attitude may create a context in which legislative or behavioral change can occur
  • Opposition by Whites to immigration or affirmative action
    • More acceptable, veiled way to express prejudice
      • Described as “modern racism, color blind racism, or laissez-faire racism”

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

equal status contact
Equal Status Contact
  • Contact hypothesis: An interactionist perspective stating that intergroup contact between people of equal status in noncompetitive circumstances will reduce prejudice

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide25
Corporate Response: Diversity Training
    • Prejudice carries a cost not only to the victim but also to any organization that allows prejudice to interfere with its functioning
    • Most organizations have initiated some form of diversity training
    • Difficult to assess their effectiveness because of variation in structure between organizations
    • Content also varies
    • To have a lasting impact, training should not be separated from other aspects of the organization

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

ways to fight hate
Ways to Fight Hate
  • 1. Act
  • 2. Unite
  • 3. Support The Victims
  • 4. Do Your Homework
  • 5. Create An Alternative
  • 6. Speak Up
  • 7. Lobby Leaders
  • 8. Look Long Range
  • 9. Teach Tolerance
  • 10. Dig Deeper

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

questions
Questions

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide28
What is the role of the internet in bias globally?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide29
How can television reduce prejudice in American society and can it be used globally? Why or why not?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide30
Why is education an important tool for reducing prejudice and discrimination?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide31
How can one’s name lead to discrimination in seeking employment?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide32
Identify stereotypes associated with a group of people such as older adults or people with physical disabilities.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

slide33
How is color-bind racism expressed?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.