Kansas State University CIS 636 & 736 Intermediate Topics 2 of 2 Computer Animation: Survey and Intro Reading : cha - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kansas State University CIS 636 & 736 Intermediate Topics 2 of 2 Computer Animation: Survey and Intro Reading : cha

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  1. Kansas State University CIS 636 & 736 Intermediate Topics 2 of 2 Computer Animation: Survey and Intro Reading: chapter 21 of the textbook Lab: None Slides by Rotenberg (UCSD) and Gooch (Northwestern)

  2. Prerequisites • CIS 636 • Familiarity with: • Vectors (dot products, cross products…) • Matrices (4x4 homogeneous transformations) • Polygon rendering • Basic lighting (normals, Gouraud, Phong…) • OpenGL, Direct3D, Java3D, or equivalent • C++ or Java • Object oriented programming • Basic physics Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  3. Topics in CGA • Introduction • Skeletons • Quaternions • Skinning • Facial Animation • Advanced Skinning • Channels & Keyframes • Animation Blending • Inverse Kinematics 1 • Inverse Kinematics 2 • Locomotion • Particle Systems • Cloth Simulation • Collision Detection • Rigid Body Physics Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  4. Angel Games

  5. Computer Animation Overview Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  6. Applications • Special Effects (Movies, TV) • Video Games • Virtual Reality • Simulation, Training, Military • Medical • Robotics, Animatronics • Visualization • Communication Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  7. Computer Animation • Kinematics • Physics (a.k.a. dynamics, simulation, mechanics) • Character animation • Artificial intelligence • Motion capture / data driven animation Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  8. Animation Process while (not finished) { MoveEverything(); DrawEverything(); } • Interactive vs. Non-Interactive • Real Time vs. Non-Real Time Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  9. Character Rigging • Skeleton • Skin • Facial Expressions • Muscles • Secondary motion: fat, hair, clothing… Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  10. Character Animation • Keyframe Animation • Motion Capture • Inverse Kinematics • Locomotion • Procedural Animation • Artificial Intelligence Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  11. Character Animation Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  12. Physics Simulation • Particles • Rigid bodies • Collisions, contact, stacking, rolling, sliding • Articulated bodies • Hinges, constraints • Deformable bodies (solid mechanics) • Elasticity, plasticity, viscosity • Fracture • Cloth • Fluid dynamics • Fluid flow (liquids & gasses) • Combustion (fire, smoke, explosions…) • Phase changes (melting, freezing, boiling…) • Vehicle dynamics • Cars, boats, airplanes, helicopters, motorcycles… • Character dynamics • Body motion, skin & muscle, hair, clothing Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  13. Physics Simulation Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  14. Animation Tools • Maya • 3D Studio • Lightwave • Filmbox • Blender • Many more… Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  15. Animation Production • Conceptual Design • Production Design • Modeling • Materials & Shaders • Rigging • Blocking • Animation • Lighting • Effects • Rendering • Post-Production Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  16. Resolution & Frame Rates • Video: • NTSC: 720 x 480 @ 30 Hz (interlaced) • PAL: 720 x 576 @ 25 Hz (interlaced) • HDTV: • 720p: 1280 x 720 @ 60 Hz • 1080i: 1920 x 1080 @ 30 Hz (interlaced) • 1080p: 1920 x 1080 @ 60 Hz • Film: • 35mm: ~2000 x ~1500 @ 24 Hz • 70mm: ~4000 x ~2000 @ 24 Hz • IMAX: ~5000 x ~4000 @ 24-48 Hz • Note: Hz (Hertz) = frames per second (fps) • Note: Video standards with an i (such as 1080i) are interlaced, while standards with a p (1080p) are progressive scan Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  17. Rendering • There are many ways to design a 3D renderer • The two most common approaches are: • Traditional graphics pipeline • Ray-based rendering • With the traditional approach, primitives (usually triangles) are rendered into the image one at a time, and complex visual effects often involve a variety of different tricks • With ray-based approaches, the entire scene is stored and then rendered one pixel at a time. Ray based approaches can simulate light more accurately and offer the possibility of significant quality improvements, but with a large cost • In this class, we will not be very concerned with rendering, as we will focus mainly on how objects move rather than how they look Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego Winter, 2006 Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W. http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

  18. Animation • Animate = “to give life to” • Specify, directly or indirectly, how ‘thing’ moves in time and space • Tools Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  19. Two main categories • Computer-assisted animation • 2D & 2 1/2 D • Inbetweening • Inking, virtual camera, managing data, etc • Computer generated animation • Low level techniques • Precisely specifying motion • High level techniques • Describe general motion behavior Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  20. Low level techniques • Shape interpolation (in-betweening) • Have to know what you want Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  21. High level techniques • Generate motion with set of rules or constraints • Physically based motion Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/ http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~job/Projects/SoundGen/video.html

  22. Abstraction Animator colors each pixel to Tell computer to “make movie about a dog” Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  23. Perception of Animations • Playback rate • Sampling or update rate • TV: 30 images/second • Sat Morning Cartoons: • 6 different images per second • Each image repeated five times Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  24. Heritage of Animation • Persistence of vision: discovered about 1800s • Zoetrope or “wheel of life” • Flip-book Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  25. Heritage of Animation • Camera to make lifeless things move • Meleis 1890 using simple tricks • Emil Cohl (1857-1938, French) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  26. Heritage of Animation • J. Stuart Blackton (American) • Meet Thomas Edison in 1895 • Combine drawing and file: “The Enchanted Drawing” • Six years later: “Humorous Phases of Funny Faces • Animated smoke in 1900; First animated cartoon in 1906 Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  27. Heritage of Animation • First celebrated Animator • Winsor McCay (American) • Little nemo • Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  28. Heritage of Animation • First major technical development • John Bray /Earl Hurd (1910) • Translucent cels (short for celluloid) in compositing multiple layers • Use of grey scale (as opposed to B&W) • Color short in 1920 John Randolph Bray'sColonel Heeza Lair. Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  29. Heritage of Animation Out of Bray’s studio • Max Fleischer (Betty Boop,, Popeye) • Patented rotoscoping in 1915 • Draing images on cells by tracing over previously recorded live action • Paul Terry (Terrytoons: Mighty Mouse) • George Stallings(?) • Walter Lantz (Woody Woodpecker) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  30. Heritage of Animation • Animation as an art form • First animated character with personality • Felix the cat by Otto Messmer (1920s) • Force to reckoned with • Sound and Walt Disney Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  31. Disney: Animation as an art form • Innovations • Story board to review story • Pencil sketch to review motion • Multi-plane camera stand • Color (not first to use color) • Sound! • Steamboat Willie (1928) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  32. Multiplane Camera • Move scene layers independently of camera http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Club/9199/Animation/Disney_Multiplane.html

  33. MGM and Warner Brothers, etc. Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  34. Other Media Animation • Computer animation is often compared to stop motion animation • Puppet animation • Willis O’Brian (King Kong) • Ray Harryhausen (Might joe Yong, Jason and the Argonauts) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  35. Other Media Animation • Claymation • Pinhead animation • Sand animation • Physical object is manipulated, image captured, repeat Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  36. Hierachy of film/animation Presentation Act Scene Shot Frame Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  37. Production of Animation • Preliminary story • Story board • Detailed story • Key Frames • Test shot • Pencil test • Inbetweening • Inking • Coloring Computer Animation basically follows this pipeline Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  38. Computer Animation as Animation Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/ • Lasseter translated principles of animation as articulated by two of Nine Old Men of Disney to computer animation • Lasseter is conventionally trained animator • Worked at Disney before going to Pixar • Many celebrated animations • Knick-knack (oscar-winning)

  39. Short History of Computer Animation In Research labs • NYIT Still frame from Gumby animation by Hank Grebe and Dick Lundin, 1984.

  40. In Research Labs • University of Utah • Films on walking and talking figure • Animated hand and animated face (1972) • University of Pennsylvania • Human figure animation (Norm Badler) • Cornell University • architectural walk-throughs (Don Greenberg) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  41. History of Computer Animation • 1974: Hunger by Rene Jodoin and Peter Foldes • 2.5D system, object interpolation Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  42. Current activity Centers • University of Toronto's Computer Science Department • Simon-Fraser University's Graphics and Mulitmedia Research Lab • Georgia Tech's Graphics Visualization and Usability Center • Brown Computer Graphics Group • Ohio State University's ACCAD • Ohio State University's Department of Computer and Information Science • George Washington University Graphics Group • UC San Diego's Department of Computer Science and Engineering • University of North Carolina's Computer Science Department • MIT's Media Lab • MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science • University of Wisconsin at Madison Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  43. History of Film & Video • Companies • Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. (MAGI) • Information International Inc. (III, or Triple-I) • Digital Production • Digital Effects • Image West • Robert Abel and Associates • Cranston-Csuri. Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  44. Current Companies • Pixar • Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) • Pacific Data Images (PDI) • Disney • Xaos • Rhythm & Hues • Digital Domain • Lamb & Company • Metrolight Studios • Boss Film Studios • deGraf/Wahrman • R/Greenberg Associates • Blue Sky Productions • Sony Pictures • Cinesite • Imageworks • Apple…. . Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  45. Animations that paved the way Pixar • Luxo Jr. (1986) • first computer animation to be nominated for an Academy Award • Red's Dream (1987) • Tin Toy (1988) • first computer animation to win an Academy Award • Knick Knack (1989) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  46. Early CG in film • Future World (1976) • Star Wars (1977) • Lawnmower man (1992, Xaos, Angel Studios) • Hollywood’s view of VR • Tron (1982, MAGI) • Supposed to look like a computer • The Last Starfighter (1984) • Use CG in place of models • Willow (1988, ILM) • Morphing video • First digital blue screen matte extraction • Howard the Duck (1986, ILM) • First wire removal • The Abyss (1989, ILM) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  47. More early CG in film • Jurassic Park (1993, ILM) • Forest Gump (1994, Digital Domain) • Insert CG ping pong ball • Babe (1995, Rhythm & Hues) • Move mouths of animals & fill in background • Toy Story (1995, Pixar & Disney) • First full length fully CG 3D animation Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  48. Early CG on TV • Reboot (1995, Limelight Ltd. BLT Productions) • Similar intention of “inside computer” • First fully 3D Sat. morning cartoon • Babylon 5 (1995) • Routinely used CG models as regular features • Simpsons (1995 PDI) Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  49. Resources • Milestones of the animation industry in the 20th Century • http://www.awn.com/mag/issue4.10/4.10pages/cohenmilestones.php3 • http://www.fact-index.com/a/an/animation.html#History%20of%20Animation • Brief History of NYIT Computer Graphics Lab http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~ph/nyit/masson/nyit.html Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  50. Resources (con’t.) • Timeline from Brown Animation class • http://www.cs.brown.edu/courses/cs229/animTimeline.html • In-betweening • http://alpha.luc.ac.be/~lucp1112/research/CA2001/results.html Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U. Summer, 2006 Gooch, A. http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/