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Kansas State University CIS 636 & 736 Intermediate Topics 2 of 2 Computer Animation: Survey and Intro Reading : chapter 21 of the textbook Lab : None Slides by Rotenberg (UCSD) and Gooch (Northwestern) Prerequisites CIS 636 Familiarity with: Vectors (dot products, cross products…)

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Kansas State University

CIS 636 & 736

Intermediate Topics 2 of 2

Computer Animation: Survey and Intro

Reading: chapter 21 of the textbook

Lab: None

Slides by Rotenberg (UCSD) and Gooch (Northwestern)

prerequisites
Prerequisites
  • CIS 636
  • Familiarity with:
    • Vectors (dot products, cross products…)
    • Matrices (4x4 homogeneous transformations)
    • Polygon rendering
    • Basic lighting (normals, Gouraud, Phong…)
    • OpenGL, Direct3D, Java3D, or equivalent
    • C++ or Java
    • Object oriented programming
    • Basic physics

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

topics in cga
Topics in CGA
  • Introduction
  • Skeletons
  • Quaternions
  • Skinning
  • Facial Animation
  • Advanced Skinning
  • Channels & Keyframes
  • Animation Blending
  • Inverse Kinematics 1
  • Inverse Kinematics 2
  • Locomotion
  • Particle Systems
  • Cloth Simulation
  • Collision Detection
  • Rigid Body Physics

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

computer animation overview

Computer Animation Overview

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

applications
Applications
  • Special Effects (Movies, TV)
  • Video Games
  • Virtual Reality
  • Simulation, Training, Military
  • Medical
  • Robotics, Animatronics
  • Visualization
  • Communication

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

computer animation
Computer Animation
  • Kinematics
  • Physics (a.k.a. dynamics, simulation, mechanics)
  • Character animation
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Motion capture / data driven animation

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

animation process
Animation Process

while (not finished) {

MoveEverything();

DrawEverything();

}

  • Interactive vs. Non-Interactive
  • Real Time vs. Non-Real Time

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

character rigging
Character Rigging
  • Skeleton
  • Skin
  • Facial Expressions
  • Muscles
  • Secondary motion: fat, hair, clothing…

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

character animation
Character Animation
  • Keyframe Animation
  • Motion Capture
  • Inverse Kinematics
  • Locomotion
  • Procedural Animation
  • Artificial Intelligence

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

character animation11
Character Animation

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

physics simulation
Physics Simulation
  • Particles
  • Rigid bodies
    • Collisions, contact, stacking, rolling, sliding
  • Articulated bodies
    • Hinges, constraints
  • Deformable bodies (solid mechanics)
    • Elasticity, plasticity, viscosity
    • Fracture
    • Cloth
  • Fluid dynamics
    • Fluid flow (liquids & gasses)
    • Combustion (fire, smoke, explosions…)
    • Phase changes (melting, freezing, boiling…)
  • Vehicle dynamics
    • Cars, boats, airplanes, helicopters, motorcycles…
  • Character dynamics
    • Body motion, skin & muscle, hair, clothing

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

physics simulation13
Physics Simulation

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

animation tools
Animation Tools
  • Maya
  • 3D Studio
  • Lightwave
  • Filmbox
  • Blender
  • Many more…

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

animation production
Animation Production
  • Conceptual Design
  • Production Design
  • Modeling
  • Materials & Shaders
  • Rigging
  • Blocking
  • Animation
  • Lighting
  • Effects
  • Rendering
  • Post-Production

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

resolution frame rates
Resolution & Frame Rates
  • Video:
    • NTSC: 720 x 480 @ 30 Hz (interlaced)
    • PAL: 720 x 576 @ 25 Hz (interlaced)
  • HDTV:
    • 720p: 1280 x 720 @ 60 Hz
    • 1080i: 1920 x 1080 @ 30 Hz (interlaced)
    • 1080p: 1920 x 1080 @ 60 Hz
  • Film:
    • 35mm: ~2000 x ~1500 @ 24 Hz
    • 70mm: ~4000 x ~2000 @ 24 Hz
    • IMAX: ~5000 x ~4000 @ 24-48 Hz
  • Note: Hz (Hertz) = frames per second (fps)
  • Note: Video standards with an i (such as 1080i) are interlaced, while standards with a p (1080p) are progressive scan

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

rendering
Rendering
  • There are many ways to design a 3D renderer
  • The two most common approaches are:
    • Traditional graphics pipeline
    • Ray-based rendering
  • With the traditional approach, primitives (usually triangles) are rendered into the image one at a time, and complex visual effects often involve a variety of different tricks
  • With ray-based approaches, the entire scene is stored and then rendered one pixel at a time. Ray based approaches can simulate light more accurately and offer the possibility of significant quality improvements, but with a large cost
  • In this class, we will not be very concerned with rendering, as we will focus mainly on how objects move rather than how they look

Source: CSE 169, Computer Animation, UC San Diego

Winter, 2006

Rotenberg, S. & Jarosz, W.

http://graphics.ucsd.edu/courses/cse169_w06/

animation
Animation
  • Animate = “to give life to”
  • Specify, directly or indirectly, how ‘thing’ moves in time and space
  • Tools

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

two main categories
Two main categories
  • Computer-assisted animation
    • 2D & 2 1/2 D
    • Inbetweening
    • Inking, virtual camera, managing data, etc
  • Computer generated animation
    • Low level techniques
      • Precisely specifying motion
    • High level techniques
      • Describe general motion behavior

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

low level techniques
Low level techniques
  • Shape interpolation (in-betweening)
  • Have to know what you want

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

high level techniques
High level techniques
  • Generate motion with set of rules or constraints
    • Physically based motion

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~job/Projects/SoundGen/video.html

abstraction
Abstraction

Animator colors each pixel

to

Tell computer to “make movie about a dog”

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

perception of animations
Perception of Animations
  • Playback rate
  • Sampling or update rate
  • TV: 30 images/second
  • Sat Morning Cartoons:
    • 6 different images per second
    • Each image repeated five times

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation
Heritage of Animation
  • Persistence of vision: discovered about 1800s
    • Zoetrope or “wheel of life”
    • Flip-book

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation25
Heritage of Animation
  • Camera to make lifeless things move
    • Meleis 1890 using simple tricks
    • Emil Cohl (1857-1938, French)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation26
Heritage of Animation
  • J. Stuart Blackton (American)
    • Meet Thomas Edison in 1895
      • Combine drawing and file: “The Enchanted Drawing”
      • Six years later: “Humorous Phases of Funny Faces
    • Animated smoke in 1900; First animated cartoon in 1906

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation27
Heritage of Animation
  • First celebrated Animator
    • Winsor McCay (American)
      • Little nemo
      • Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation28
Heritage of Animation
  • First major technical development
    • John Bray /Earl Hurd (1910)
    • Translucent cels (short for celluloid) in compositing multiple layers
    • Use of grey scale (as opposed to B&W)
    • Color short in 1920

John Randolph Bray'sColonel Heeza Lair.

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation29
Heritage of Animation

Out of Bray’s studio

  • Max Fleischer (Betty Boop,, Popeye)
    • Patented rotoscoping in 1915
    • Draing images on cells by tracing over previously recorded live action
  • Paul Terry (Terrytoons: Mighty Mouse)
  • George Stallings(?)
  • Walter Lantz (Woody Woodpecker)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

heritage of animation30
Heritage of Animation
  • Animation as an art form
    • First animated character with personality
      • Felix the cat by Otto Messmer (1920s)
  • Force to reckoned with
    • Sound and Walt Disney

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

disney animation as an art form
Disney: Animation as an art form
  • Innovations
    • Story board to review story
    • Pencil sketch to review motion
    • Multi-plane camera stand
    • Color (not first to use color)
    • Sound!
      • Steamboat Willie (1928)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

multiplane camera
Multiplane Camera
  • Move scene layers independently of camera

http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Club/9199/Animation/Disney_Multiplane.html

mgm and warner brothers etc
MGM and Warner Brothers, etc.

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

other media animation
Other Media Animation
  • Computer animation is often compared to stop motion animation
    • Puppet animation
      • Willis O’Brian (King Kong)
      • Ray Harryhausen (Might joe Yong, Jason and the Argonauts)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

other media animation35
Other Media Animation
    • Claymation
    • Pinhead animation
    • Sand animation
  • Physical object is manipulated, image captured, repeat

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

hierachy of film animation
Hierachy of film/animation

Presentation

Act

Scene

Shot

Frame

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

production of animation
Production of Animation
  • Preliminary story
  • Story board
  • Detailed story
  • Key Frames
  • Test shot
  • Pencil test
  • Inbetweening
  • Inking
  • Coloring

Computer Animation

basically follows this

pipeline

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

computer animation as animation
Computer Animation as Animation

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

  • Lasseter translated principles of animation as articulated by two of Nine Old Men of Disney to computer animation
    • Lasseter is conventionally trained animator
      • Worked at Disney before going to Pixar
      • Many celebrated animations
      • Knick-knack (oscar-winning)
short history of computer animation
Short History of Computer Animation

In Research labs

  • NYIT

Still frame from Gumby animation by Hank Grebe and Dick Lundin, 1984.

in research labs
In Research Labs
  • University of Utah
    • Films on walking and talking figure
    • Animated hand and animated face (1972)
  • University of Pennsylvania
    • Human figure animation (Norm Badler)
  • Cornell University
    • architectural walk-throughs (Don Greenberg)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

history of computer animation
History of Computer Animation
  • 1974: Hunger by Rene Jodoin and Peter Foldes
    • 2.5D system, object interpolation

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

current activity centers
Current activity Centers
  • University of Toronto's Computer Science Department
  • Simon-Fraser University's Graphics and Mulitmedia Research Lab
  • Georgia Tech's Graphics Visualization and Usability Center
  • Brown Computer Graphics Group
  • Ohio State University's ACCAD
  • Ohio State University's Department of Computer and Information Science
  • George Washington University Graphics Group
  • UC San Diego's Department of Computer Science and Engineering
  • University of North Carolina's Computer Science Department
  • MIT's Media Lab
  • MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science
  • University of Wisconsin at Madison

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

history of film video
History of Film & Video
  • Companies
    • Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. (MAGI)
    • Information International Inc. (III, or Triple-I)
    • Digital Production
    • Digital Effects
    • Image West
    • Robert Abel and Associates
    • Cranston-Csuri.

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

current companies
Current Companies
  • Pixar
  • Industrial Light and Magic (ILM)
  • Pacific Data Images (PDI)
  • Disney
  • Xaos
  • Rhythm & Hues
  • Digital Domain
  • Lamb & Company
  • Metrolight Studios
  • Boss Film Studios
  • deGraf/Wahrman
  • R/Greenberg Associates
  • Blue Sky Productions
  • Sony Pictures
  • Cinesite
  • Imageworks
  • Apple…. .

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

animations that paved the way
Animations that paved the way

Pixar

  • Luxo Jr. (1986)
    • first computer animation to be nominated for an Academy Award
  • Red's Dream (1987)
  • Tin Toy (1988)
    • first computer animation to win an Academy Award
  • Knick Knack (1989)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

early cg in film
Early CG in film
  • Future World (1976)
  • Star Wars (1977)
    • Lawnmower man (1992, Xaos, Angel Studios)
      • Hollywood’s view of VR
  • Tron (1982, MAGI)
    • Supposed to look like a computer
  • The Last Starfighter (1984)
    • Use CG in place of models
  • Willow (1988, ILM)
    • Morphing video
    • First digital blue screen matte extraction
  • Howard the Duck (1986, ILM)
    • First wire removal
  • The Abyss (1989, ILM)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

more early cg in film
More early CG in film
  • Jurassic Park (1993, ILM)
    • Forest Gump (1994, Digital Domain)
      • Insert CG ping pong ball
    • Babe (1995, Rhythm & Hues)
      • Move mouths of animals & fill in background
    • Toy Story (1995, Pixar & Disney)
      • First full length fully CG 3D animation

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

early cg on tv
Early CG on TV
  • Reboot (1995, Limelight Ltd. BLT Productions)
    • Similar intention of “inside computer”
    • First fully 3D Sat. morning cartoon
  • Babylon 5 (1995)
    • Routinely used CG models as regular features
  • Simpsons (1995 PDI)

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

resources
Resources
  • Milestones of the animation industry in the 20th Century
    • http://www.awn.com/mag/issue4.10/4.10pages/cohenmilestones.php3
  • http://www.fact-index.com/a/an/animation.html#History%20of%20Animation
  • Brief History of NYIT Computer Graphics Lab http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~ph/nyit/masson/nyit.html

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

resources con t
Resources (con’t.)
  • Timeline from Brown Animation class
    • http://www.cs.brown.edu/courses/cs229/animTimeline.html
  • In-betweening
    • http://alpha.luc.ac.be/~lucp1112/research/CA2001/results.html

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

credits resources
Credits/Resources
  • Rick Parent
    • http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~parent/book/Intr.html
    • http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~parent/book/outline.html
  • America’s Story
    • http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/sh/animation/blcktn_2

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

character animation52
Character Animation
  • Control motion of articulated limbs
  • Skeletal-muscle-skin models
  • Facial animation
  • Representation and Animation of surface detail
    • Hair
    • Clothes

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/

utah cg history
Utah CG History
  • http://silicon-valley.siggraph.org/text/MeetingNotes/Utah.html

Source: CS 395, Computer Animation, Northwestern U.

Summer, 2006

Gooch, A.

http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~animation/