Old Testament Timeline. Benjamin S. Heath. “To every thing there is a season , and a time to every purpose under the heaven” (Ecclesiastes 3:1). Introduction.
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Benjamin S. Heath
“To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven” (Ecclesiastes 3:1).
???? B.C.-2348 B.C.
Verse two of Genesis chapter one tells us that the earth became destroyed after the creation: “And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the water.” The word “was” in verse two should be translated as the word “became.” And the words “without form” would be better translated as “waste, or desolate” (Bullinger, 1922, p. 3). Thus, God created the heavens and the earth billions of years ago and the earth later became wasted or desolate. This desolation happened when God destroyed the world that then was because of the Satan’s rebellion in that first age (Ezekiel 28). This great destruction is also known in part as the ice ages and is recorded in the II Book of Peter 3:5-6; “For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished.” God does not create anything void and without form (Isaiah 45:18), it became that way.
“Orthodoxy has held until this day to the belief that the Deluge of Genesis was universal, covering the whole of the globe; yet such a belief, although apparently expressed by the translators, is, according to a careful analysis of certain facts of Scripture, and impossibility, to say nothing of the recorded facts of Egyptian and Chinese history, nor the impossibility presented by physical science. Once the question of the Deluge is settled, another of the obstacles over which the critics and the scientists have stumbled is removed” (Haberman, p.16). Thus, Noah’s flood only covered a certain region not the entire earth.
Note: Purple dates are taken from “A Survey of the Old Testament”
“One of the greatest difficulties which chronologers have to face is, and always has been, the apparent conflict between the record in I Kings 6.1, that Solomon’s temple was commenced “in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt” ; while in Acts. 13.17-22 the same period amounts to 573 years; a difference of ninety-three years.
In the majority of cases I Kings 6.1 has been adopted by chronologists as being correct, ST. Paul’s reckoning being left to take care of itself; or, they say he was “misinformed”, or “only speaking generally.”
The simple fact is both are right.
The solution of the difficulty is that St. Paul’s statement is according to Anno Mundi years (573)—the other on the principle of what we may call Anno Dei reckoning (480)” (Bullinger, 1922, ap.50).
Note: Purple dates are taken from “A Survey of the Old Testament”
(1491 B.C. - 1451 B.C.)
(1451 B.C. – 1444 B.C.)
“Now after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD it came to pass, that the LORD spake unto Joshua the son of Nun, Moses’ minister, saying, “Moses My servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this People, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel” (Joshua 1:1-2).
1451 B.C. The children of Israel cross Jordon and conquer the city of Jericho.
1444 B.C. The “Wars of the Lord” end. Joshua then relinquishes his leadership to “Eleazar the priest.”
(1423 B.C. – 1000 B.C.)
(1000 B.C. – 426 B.C.)
“So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, “What portion have we in David? Neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David.” So Israel departed unto their tents” (I Kings 12:16).
880 B.C. Rehoboam
863 B.C. Abijam
860 B.C. Asa
819 B.C. Jehoshaphat
796 B.C. Jehoram
782 B.C. Jehoash
743 B.C. Amaziah
701 B.C. Uzziah
647 B.C. Jotham
632 B.C. Ahaz
617 B.C. Hezekiah
588 B.C. Manasseh
533 B.C. Amon
531 B.C. Josiah
500 B.C. Jehoahaz
499 B.C. Jehoiakim
489 B.C. Jehoiachin
488 B.C. Zedekiah
Kings of Israel
880 B.C. Jeroboam
858 B.C. Nadab
857 B.C. Baasha
834 B.C. Elah
833 B.C. Zimri
833 B.C. Omri
822 B.C. Ahab
802 B.C. Ahaziah
801 B.C. Jehoram
788 B.C. Jehu
759 B.C. Jehoahaz
745 B.C. Jehoash
728 B.C. Jeroboam II
662 B.C. Zechariah
651 B.C. Pekahiah
649 B.C. Pekah
620 B.C. HosheaKings of Israel - Judah, and the Prophets
611 B.C. Samaria taken and the ten tribes of Israel taken into captivity by the Assyrians.
497 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon’s first siege of Jerusalem. (597 B.C.)
489 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar’s second siege of Jerusalem.
478 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar’s third siege of Jerusalem begins.
477 B.C. Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar and the Temple destroyed—Judah and Benjamin are taken into captivity. (586 B.C.)
“Not content with being a vassal, Judah repeatedly became mired in conspiracies doomed to failure, leading in 586 B.C.to the final destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar, who deemed the city politically unreformable. Judah had already proven itself unreformable spiritually. During this whole tragic period, Jeremiah was continuing to proclaim the word of the Lord. (More on the military and political struggles is given in chapter 26, “Ezekiel.”)
Besides the destruction of the city and the temple, the state of Judah was dismantled by means of deportation of the populace. The first stage of deportation took place in597 B.C., when Jehoikim rebelled. Jehoikim’s son, Jehoiachin, was taken to Babylon at that time, as was the prophet Ezekiel. Despite the claims by some prophets in Judah that this was the full extent of the Lord’s punishment and that thereafter the situation would improve, Jeremiah contended that the worst was yet to come. Sadly, this proved true when Zedekiah’s rebellion in 589 brought the Babylonians back to Jerusalem with intent to destroy. Though deportation was used politically to obliterate national and ethnic identities, the Lord planned to use it to preserve a remnant for himself” (Hill & Walton, 2000, p. 426-427).
“And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king…Then the king said unto me, “For what dost thou make request?” So I prayed to the god of heaven. And I said unto the king, “If it please the king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my fathers’ sepulchres, that I may build it” (Nehemiah 2:1-5).
“Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing saying, Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build Him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah (Ezra 1:1-2).
“And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king. And the children of Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and the rest of the children of the captivity, kept the dedication of this house of GOD with joy” (Ezra 6:15-16).
“Seventy weeks are determined upon thy People and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself” (Daniel 9:24-26).