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Non- alcoholic Beverages. Breakfast Drinks from Plants. Drink for Caffeine. Beverages that contain caffeine or purine derivatives, are used world wide for their stimulating and refreshing qualities. Caffeine is an alkaloid that is a diuretic and nerve stimulant (<2%)

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non alcoholic beverages

Non- alcoholic Beverages

Breakfast Drinks from Plants

drink for caffeine
Drink for Caffeine
  • Beverages that contain caffeine or purine derivatives, are used world wide for their stimulating and refreshing qualities.
  • Caffeine is an alkaloid that is a diuretic and nerve stimulant (<2%)
  • Tea originated in southeastern Asia
  • Coffee originated in southwestern Asia
  • Cocoa from tropical America
  • Lesser known ones
    • Cola – south Africa
    • Khat – Arabs
    • Guarana – South America
purines
Purines
  • Small molecules that contain nitrogen possessing purine skeleton.
  • 15 compounds are reported
  • Adenine and Guanine are nucleotides
three musketeers
Three musketeers

Tea

Coffee

Coca

tea time
Tea time
  • Tea auctions are held in the city of London every week.
  • Only place where tea from every tea producing country will be on sale.
  • Tea tasting is a vital part of setting prices and buying and selling
    • Autumnal, pungent or brisk
    • Weedy or chesty
countries involved
Countries involved
  • Originated in around Tibet and is also indigenous to Assam, China and Southern Cambodia
  • Production:
    • Asia – 70%
      • India 30% but consumes more than 50%
      • Sri Lanka – 10%
    • East Africa –Kenya
    • Indonesia, Thailand, China, Turkey, USSR
  • British are world’s biggest tea drinkers
plant
Plant
  • Camellia sinensis
    • Two main varieties
      • C.sinensis var. sinensis
      • C. sinensis var. assaminca
  • Family: Theaceae
  • Mainly grown in subtropics and mountainous regions of tropics
  • It can be grown from above sea level and just over 2100 meters
morphology
Morphology
  • Small evergreen trees
  • From rooting of cuttings to maintain uniformity of particular variety
  • They are allowed to grow knee high for easy picking
  • Mature when 4 yrs
  • Only first two young leaves and the terminal buds called as “flush” are picked (high concentration of caffeine)
  • Can be picked every 10 -14 days
process
Process
  • Chinese tea – Green tea, flowery flavor and light
  • Assam tea – Black tea, “heavy” stronger
  • Black tea: Process involves
    • Withering by blowing air through the leaves that are in troughs to reduce water content and enzymatic release of aroma
    • Fermentation – by rolling leaves and leaving them in a warm damp condition to rupture cells, allow oxidation of phenolics and turn cooper color
    • Finally dry or fire the tea leaves with hot air to remove excess water, gives black color
  • Green tea: Freshly picked leaves are steamed and dried without the withering stage and thus retain a faint but distinctive ‘grassy’ taste, and their green color.
chemistry of tea
Chemistry of tea
  • Caffeine the stimulant 3-4%, theobromine (.017%) and theophylline (.013%
  • Tannins
  • Polyphenols – flavonoids, catechins
    • Anittumor and antimutagenic
    • Prevent tumor cell growth and division
    • Green tea is 6 times better than black tea
stories of tea
Stories of Tea
  • The Chinese believe that tea was first drunk during the reign of Shen Nung (The Divine healer) during 2737 BC
  • Japanese Tea Ceremony: During Sung Dynasty (960 -1120) ritualized the preparation and drinking of tea as contemplation. This was taken to Japan
    • The tea ceremony according to Zen Buddhism is a means of achieving the ideal state of perfect harmony and tranquility
    • Still very important; Japanese girls attend special classes; families spend large amounts of money to built tea huts and buy tea utensils.
stories of tea1
Stories of Tea
  • A harsh tea tax was placed on tea by King George III and in 1773 a serious upset occurred for British East India Company
    • “Boston Tea Party” : By way of protest, a group of American colonists, disguised as Indians, threw a cargo of tea waiting to be unloaded into the harbor at Boston.
    • Smuggling became common
    • 19th century tea was only for rich
    • By Victorian times taking afternoon tea became common
coffee
Coffee
  • Second only to petroleum, as a revenue earner, coffee is an immensely valuable commodity.
  • This drink revives 1/3 of world’s population.
  • Finns drinks on average 5 cups each day
  • Japanese bath in coffee grounds for the health giving properties
  • Turks scan the dregs of their coffee cups for omens of future
slide15

http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&rls=GGIH,GGIH:2007-04,GGIH:en&q=picture+of+coffee+planthttp://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&rls=GGIH,GGIH:2007-04,GGIH:en&q=picture+of+coffee+plant

discovery
Discovery
  • Native of Abyssinia
  • By Ethiopians goatherds
    • Noticed that their goats were unusually frisky after eating the ripe red berries of wild coffee bushes
  • 2nd AD, local tribe men
    • made small cakes from the pulverized fruits mixed with fat and grains to sustain them on long journeys and to relieve fatigue
    • Made stimulant drink by fermenting berries and mixing with water.
  • Arabs were the first to brew coffee
the spread
The spread
  • 13th century – coffee houses were established and the drink became very popular
  • Quickly spread to turkey and the surrounding areas.
    • Gesture of hospitality by offering a cup of strong black brew to visitors.
  • Reached Europe around 1616
  • By 1675 it became a rage in London
    • “penny universities”
    • English stock exchange, the merchant banks and first insurance companies all had beginnings in coffee houses
the plant
The plant
  • Coffea arabica (arabica coffee) – 75%, C. canephora (robusta coffee) 24% and C. liberica are grown commercially
  • Family - Rubiaceae
  • Three varieties are known
    • Arabica
    • Robusta
    • Liberica
morphology1
Morphology
  • Source of coffee is the seed that is part of a fleshy berry (sometimes called as cherry)
  • Grows well at higher elevation. Plants are grown directly from seed. Harvesting after 3 -5 yrs and will produce coffee for 30 yrs.
  • Small tree with glossy, evergreen leaves and white, sweet smelling flowers
  • After fertilization, mature berries turning dark green to yellow then red.
  • Inside the sweet pulpy outer layers are two coffee-seed surrounded by a delicate silvery seed coat.
  • Cannot tolerate frost they are grown in tropical and sub-tropical countries with an average rainfall of at least 1.9 meters per annum
processing
Processing
  • After picking berries, mostly by hand, the sweet pulp which surrounds the coffee beans (really seeds) which develop inside each cherry – like fruit is removed in one of two ways.
    • Dry process – produces beans sometimes known as ‘hard’, ‘native’, or ‘natural’ in trade
      • Dry whole fruit in the sun
      • Remove dried pulp and fine endocarp and the silver lining around the seed
    • Wet processing produ ces mild but superior flavor coffee
      • Depulped machine
      • The parchment is washed and left for fermenting for 12 -24 hrs – leading to chemical change takes place to give characteristic aroma and taste
      • Beans then dried and the fine endocarp is removed
processing1
Processing
  • Instant coffee making
    • Coarsely ground coffee is placed in sealed stainless percolators and brewed under pressure for several hrs.
    • Coffee aroma is added
    • The concentrate is either
      • sprayed under high pressure through fine nozzles into a very high towers. As the liquid falls back it dries into powder which is tumbled with steam to form granules OR
      • Freeze dried - Coffee brew is dried into thin sheets which is often cut into granules. Temperature is then raised under vacuum. This will water is “boiled –off” without the coffee getting wet. There is no heat damage or loss of aroma
  • Roasting – reduces the moisture and bring out aromatic oils
  • Very sophisticated-computer control mechanism is involved
  • Varieties: variety of coffee, region it is grown, preparation method and roasting time
coffee chemistry
Coffee Chemistry
  • Caffeine (1-2%)
  • Chlorogenic acid
  • Tannins (3-5%)
  • Sugars (15-17%)
  • Fatty oils (10 -15%)
  • Proteins (10 -15%)
substitutes
Substitutes
  • Chicory: Cichorium intybus
    • Bittter fleshy taproot are ground and roasted for use either alone or miced with coffee
  • Fig: Ficus carica
    • Roasted and ground, Austrian and Bavarian coffees are well known for this addition
  • Dandelion: Taraxacum officinale
    • Roots have stimulant and tonic but o caffeine
cocoa
Cocoa
  • Cocoa and chocolate are prepared from the seeds of the cocoa tree
  • A native of Mexico and found in South American rainforest
  • It was chief drink of the Aztecs and other native Americans
  • It was part of the diet of the plumed serpent God Quetzalcoatl.
  • Cocoa beans were used as currency by Aztecs
  • The use of cocoa by other than natives is of recent origin
cocoa1
Cocoa
  • Theobroma cacao (meaning food of the Gods)
  • Family - Sterculeaceae
  • It is a small tree 15 – 25 ft, with numerous branches. The flowers and fruits re borne directly on the tree trunk.
  • Mature at 4 – 5yrs. It flowers throughout the year, so one gets several crops annually
cocoa2
Cocoa
  • Source of cocoa is the seeds
  • The fruit is a large pod with mucilage pulp and 40 – 60 seeds
  • The pulp and seeds are scooped out of the fruit, cured and usually fermented
    • The seeds are piled in heaps in sweating boxes (houses or vats) for several days.
    • The beans become brownish, lose their bitter taste and develop aroma
    • They are then wasted and dried and polished to remove any dry pulp
    • The seeds are roasted in iron drums to develop flavor and increase the fat and protein content and lower tannins
    • The beans are passed under roller to remove the shells
    • The seeds are finally ground to an oily paste – the bitter chocolate
  • Sweet chocolate – by adding sugar and various spices
  • Milk chocolate – milk, sugar and other spices
  • Cocoa – 2/3rd fat is removed and the residue is powdered
  • The oil is cocoa butter
chemistry
Chemistry
  • Contains caffeine alkaloid called theobromine (1 -3%) – the stimulant
  • Caffeine (.2 – 3%)
  • It also has fat (35-40%) and starch (15%)
  • It also contain phenyl ethylamine, a natural amphetamine found in human brain, which induces feeling of euphoria
  • The level of this is claimed, decrease when one is in love-sick – explaining the craving of chocolate as a solace at such times
  • Also has reputation as an aphrodisiac and Casanova is said to prefer this as an inducement to romance
slide30
Kola
  • Cola nitida (Sterculiaceae)
  • Native of west Africa
  • Seeds contain caffeine and kolanin – a cardiac stimulant
  • Coco-cola – has kola and cocoa; now cocoa leaf extract and caffeine is used
slide31

http://www.henriettesherbal.com/pictures/p04/pages/cola-nitida.htmhttp://www.henriettesherbal.com/pictures/p04/pages/cola-nitida.htm

mate and guarana
Mate and guarana
  • Mate – Ilex paraguariensis
    • Leaves are used after drying over fire and crushed into coarse pieces
    • Traditionally drunk from a gourd. Has hot water and mate mixed, a straw is used.
  • Guarana – Paullinia cupana
    • Caffeine rich seeds are used.
    • Seeds are roasted and crushed with cassava flour into a paste that is formed into rods
    • A glass of guarana is made by scrapping the cylinder and mixing it with water