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Nature of Science Dr. Charles Ophardt EDU 370 Nature of Science Interconnected and validated ideas Successive generations have increasing comprehensive understandings Specific and particular ways of thinking - observing, experimenting, and validating Different from other modes of knowing.

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nature of science

NatureofScience

Dr. Charles Ophardt

EDU 370

nature of science2
Nature of Science
  • Interconnected and validated ideas
  • Successive generations have increasing comprehensive understandings
  • Specific and particular ways of thinking - observing, experimenting, and validating
  • Different from other modes of knowing.
scientific world view
Scientific World View
  • Basic beliefs and attitudes about the nature of the world and what can be learned from it.
  • World is Understandable
  • Things and events are consistant patterns that are comprehensible
  • Careful and systematic study
scientific world view ii
Scientific World View II
  • Scientific Ideas are Subject to Change
  • Science is a process of producing knowledge through observations
  • Invent theories to make sense of observations
  • New observations make changing theories inevitable
  • Can only produce "possible" to "highly probable" explanations for natural phenomena; these are never certainties.
scientific world view iii
Scientific World View III
  • Scientific Knowledge is Durable
  • Absolute truth attainment rejected
  • Knowledge, ideas, theories are modified
  • Theories become more precise and widely accepted
scientific world view iv
Scientific World View IV
  • Science Cannot Answer All Questions
  • Beliefs can not be proven or disproven
  • Cannot settle questions of “good or evil”
  • Must be able to control variables and carry out experiments.
scientific inquiry
Scientific Inquiry
  • Science disciplines united in reliance on observation, evidence, hypothesis, theories, logic
  • Science Demands Evidence
  • Observations, measurements, accurate data
  • Use own senses or instruments
  • Probe natural world
scientific inquiry ii
Scientific Inquiry II
  • Science Explains and Predicts
  • Make sense of observations
  • Make explanations and theories
  • Logically sound
  • Incorporate significant body of observations
scientific inquiry iii
Scientific Inquiry III
  • Science is not a process in which one solution is as good as another, or is simply a matter of opinion.
  • In science, there is rigorous analysis fair-test comparison of alternative explanations, using discriminate criteria
  • Confirm by multiple independent lines of evidence, leading to one "best” solution.
scientific inquiry iv
Scientific Inquiry IV
  • Scientists Try to Identify and Avoid Bias
  • Claims must be based on evidence
  • Evidence can be biased in interpretation, recording, or reporting of data
  • Which data are chosen?
  • Unconscious racial bias, gender bias, social status, source of funding, or political leanings can and do influence one's perceptions and interpretations.
scientific inquiry v
Scientific Inquiry V
  • Science is not Authoritarian
  • Appropriate to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion
  • Esteemed authorities may be wrong and do not define what is true
  • No pre-established conclusions
scientific enterprise
Scientific Enterprise
  • Has individual, social, and institutional dimensions
  • A major feature of the contemporary world
  • Science is a Complex Social Activity
  • Many individuals doing many kinds of work and study
scientific enterprise ii
Scientific Enterprise II
  • Organized by Disciplines
  • Generally Accepted Ethical Principles
  • Strongly held traditions of accurate records, data, peer review, attribution of prior work
  • Do not falsify data or findings or withhold information
scientific enterprise iii
Scientific Enterprise III
  • Participate in Public Affairs as Scientists and as Citizens
  • Bring insights and skills to bear on matters of public concern
  • Help to understand likely causes
  • Help to estimate possible effects of projected policies
distinguishing science and pseudoscience
Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience
  • Pseudoscience is indifferent to criteria of valid evidence.
  • Always avoids putting its claims to a meaningful test.
  • Pseudoscience depends on arbitrary conventions of human culture, rather than on unchanging regularities of nature.
  • http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/pseudo.html
distinguishing science and pseudoscience ii
Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience II
  • Pseudoscience appeals to false authority, to emotion, sentiment, or distrust of established fact.
  • Pseudoscience makes extraordinary claims and advances fantastic theories that contradict what is known about nature.
  • Evidence for a discovery is anecdotal.
  • The discoverer must propose new laws of nature to explain an observation.
questions i
Questions I
  • Describe the nature of Scientific Ideas or Theories. Which statement is false?
  • A. A scientific theory is used to predict future events.
  • B. Predictions are compared to reality.
  • C. If the prediction does not occur exactly as the theory predicted , the entire theory is disproven.
  • D. Theories become more precise and widely accepted with time
questions ii
Questions II
  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?
  • A. Science Cannot Answer All Questions
  • B. Beliefs can be proven or disproven
  • C. Cannot settle questions of “good or evil”
  • D. Science is able to control variables and carry out experiments.
questions iii
Questions III
  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?
  • A. Science is Authoritarian
  • B. It is appropriate to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion
  • C. Esteemed authorities may be wrong and do not define what is true
  • D. There are no pre-established conclusions
questions iv
Questions IV
  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?
  • A. Science is Authoritarian
  • B. It is appropriate to turn to knowledgeable sources of information and opinion
  • C. Esteemed authorities may be wrong and do not define what is true
  • D. There are no pre-established conclusions
questions v
Questions V
  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?
  • A. Science disciplines rely on observation, evidence, hypothesis, theories, logic
  • B. Science demands evidence for theories
  • C. Pseudoscience observations are repeatable or verifiable
  • D. All relevant observations are considered
questions vi
Questions VI
  • Describe the nature of science. Which statement is false?
  • A. Science explains and predicts
  • B. Science makes sense of observations
  • C. Makes explanations and theories
  • D. Science can perform controlled experiments to study phenomena of interest
  • E. Scientific ideas are absolutely proven
questions vii
Questions VII
  • Describe the nature of science. Which statements are false?
  • A. The natural world is understandable
  • B. Scientific Laws are not subject to change
  • C. Scientific knowledge is durable
  • D. Science can answer all questions
  • E. Science demands evidence
  • F. Science explains and predicts
  • G. Scientists try to identify and avoid bias
  • H. Science is authoritarian
references
References
  • Science for All Americanshttp://www.project2061.org/tools/sfaaol/chap1.htm
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