Introduction to Critical Thinking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

introduction to critical thinking n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Critical Thinking PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Critical Thinking

play fullscreen
1 / 68
Introduction to Critical Thinking
556 Views
Download Presentation
niveditha
Download Presentation

Introduction to Critical Thinking

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction to Critical Thinking Part II Asking Analytical Questions using Elements of Reasoning

  2. 3 Key Questions Why do we need critical thinking? What is critical thinking? What do we do to think critically?

  3. The Three Dimensions of Critical Thinking

  4. Reasoning: three aspects Elements of Reasoning Reasoning The process of drawing conclusions or figuring something out Traitsof the Disciplined Mind Standards for Reasoning

  5. The quality of our thinking is largely reflected in the quality of our questions.

  6. Circle – Dots

  7. Critical thinking is the way you do everything you do

  8. LOGIC OF Instruction Student Thinking Content

  9. StandardsElementsTraits

  10. What is involved in analyzing reasoning? (Story, argument, point of view, subject) In other words, what elements must you account for in order for the analysis to be substantive?

  11. Analyzing a Cartoon • Look at the cartoon and analyze it by asking questions. • Individually, write a series of questions that attempt to probe the meaning of the cartoon. • With a group, compare your questions with others. Add to your list.

  12. Whenever we think Whenever we think in attempting to answer a question. We think for a purpose based on concepts and theories within a point of view to make inferencesand judgments based on assumptions We use data, facts, and experiences leading to implications and conse -quences.

  13. Elements wheel A CRITICAL THINKER Considers the Elements of Thought Points of View Purpose of the Frame ofReference Thinking Perspective Goal, objective Orientation Implications & Questionsat Consequences Issue Elements Problem of Assumptions Thought Information Presuppositions, Data, observations, taking for granted facts, experiences Concepts Interpretation Theories, laws, & Inference models, defini - Conclusions, tions , principles solutions

  14. Eight Questions Students Can Routinely Ask When They Understand the Elements of Reasoning • What is the main purposeof the reasoning? • What are the key issues, problems, and questions being addressed? • What is the most important information being used? • What main inferences are embedded in the reasoning? • What are the key concepts guiding the reasoning? • What assumptions are being used? • What are the positive and negative implications? • What point ofview is/should be represented?

  15. Logic of a Cartoon • Now use the elements of reasoning to generate more questions for the same cartoon. ALSO, • Examine your original questions and identify which elements they target.

  16. Key Points • Individually we can ask a limited number of questions • Collectively we can ask even more • However, when equipped with a framework, individually and collectively we can ask even more

  17. We must routinely We must routinely take our thinking apart Take our thinking apart

  18. Eight Questions Students Can Ask to Figure out the Logic of a Subject or Discipline: • What is the main purposeof the subject? • What are the key issues, problems, and questionsaddressed within the subject? • What kinds of information are pursued within the discipline? • What types of inferencesor judgments are made? • What key conceptsinform the discipline? • What key assumptionsunderlie the discipline? • What are some important implicationsof studying the discipline? • What points of view are fostered within the discipline?

  19. Eight Questions Students Can Ask to Figure out the Logic of a Character in a Story • What is the main purposeof the character? • What are the key issues and problems facing the character? • What is the most significant information the character uses in his or her reasoning? • What main inferencesor judgments are made by the character? • What key conceptsguide the character’s reasoning? • What main assumptionsguide the behavior of the character? • What are the most important implications of the character’s thinking and behavior? • What is the main point of view of the character? Does that point of view change during the story? If so, how?

  20. Questions Targeting the Elements of Thoughtin a writing a paper Purpose: What am I trying to accomplish? What is my central aim or goal? Information: What information am I using in coming to that conclusion? What experience have I had to support this claim? What information do I need to settle the question? Inferences/Conclusions: How did I reach this conclusion? Is there another way to interpret the information? Concepts: What is the main idea here? Could I explain this idea? Assumptions: What am I taking for granted? What assumption has led me to that conclusion? Implications/Consequences: If someone accepted my position, what would implications? What am I implying? Points of View: From what point of view am I looking at this issue? Is there another point of view I should consider? Questions: What question am I raising? What question am I addressing?

  21. The Logic of an Experiment (Attach a detailed description of the experiment or laboratory procedure.) The main goal of the experiment is… The hypothesis(es) we seek to test in this experiment is(are)… The key question the experiment seeks to answer is… The controls involved in this experiment are… The key concept(s) or theory(ies) behind the experiment is(are)… The experiment is based on the following assumptions… The data that will be collected in the experiment are… The potential implications of the experiment are… The point of view behind the experiment is…

  22. Elements wheel A CRITICAL THINKER Considers the Elements of Thought Points of View Purpose of the Frame ofReference Thinking Perspective Goal, objective Orientation Implications & Questionsat Consequences Issue Elements Problem of Assumptions Thought Information Presuppositions, Data, observations, taking for granted facts, experiences Concepts Interpretation Theories, laws, & Inference models, defini - Conclusions, tions , principles solutions

  23. Conscious and Unconscious thinking Unconscious Level of Thinking

  24. Information Inference Assumption (situation) He has been hit by someone 1. You see a man with a black eye People who have black eyes have been hit Anytime a police officer trails you he is trying to catch you breaking the law 2. A police officer trails your car for several blocks He is trying to catch me breaking the law Students who ask questions like: “Is this going to be on the test?” are not interested in learning the subject 3. During class, a student asks “is this going to be on the test?” This student is not interested in learning the subject Whenever a child is crying next to her mother she has been hurt by her mother 4. You see a child crying next to her mother in a grocery store The mother has hurt the child All men in tattered clothes sitting on curbs with paper bags in their hands are bums 5. You see a man in tattered clothes sitting on a curb with a paper bag in his hand He must be a bum

  25. Inference Assumption Information 1. Your teenage son is late coming home from a late night date 2. Your spouse is late coming home from work 3. You meet a beautiful woman with blond hair 4. You get an ‘A’ on a history test. 5. Your spouse is talking to a member of the opposite sex at a late night party

  26. A critical thinker considers the elements of reasoning

  27. Activity Two: Beginning to Figure Out the Logic of Education Using your beginning understanding of the elements of reasoning, take turns completing these statements. The purpose of education is… The main problem(s) we face in educating our students is/are… If we truly educate students, some of the important implications are…

  28. Elements blank wheel

  29. StandardsElementsTraits

  30. Take your understanding of the elements of reasoning to the next level • Work in pairs. • Each person draws two circles • Using your best thinking, fill in your two circles with as much detail as possible: • One circle includes the main points about the elements. • One circle has questions you can ask when you understand the elements.

  31. Elements wheel with directions

  32. Elements of wheel – add questions

  33. Activity Three: Beginning to Figure Out the Logic of a Subject or Discipline Using your beginning understanding of the elements of reasoning, take turns completing these statements. The purpose of the discipline is… Some of the main questions pursued within the discipline are… Some of the important implications of studying the discipline are…

  34. The Logic of Ecology Goals of Ecologists:Ecologists seek to understand plants and animals as they exist in nature, with emphasis on their interrelationships, interdependence, and interactions with the environment. They work to understand all the influences that combine to produce and modify an animal or given plant, and thus to account for its existence and peculiarities within its habitat. Questions that Ecologists Ask:How do plants and animals interact? How do animals interact with each other? How do plants and animals depend on one another? How do the varying ecosystems function within themselves? How do they interact with other ecosystems? How are plants and animals affected by environmental influences? How do animals and plants grow, develop, die, and replace themselves? How do plants and animals create balances between each other? What happens when plants and animals become unbalanced?

  35. Information that Ecologists Use:The primary information used by ecologists is gained through observing plants and animals themselves, their interactions, and how they live within their environments. Ecologists note how animals and plants are born, how they reproduce, how they die, how they evolve, and how they are affected by environmental changes. They also use information from other disciplines including chemistry, meteorology and geology. Judgments that Ecologists Make:Ecologists make judgments about how ecosystems naturally function, about how animals and plants within them function, about why they function as they do. They make judgments about how ecosystems become out of balance and what can be done to bring them back into balance. They make judg­ments about how natural communities should be grouped and classified.

  36. Concepts that Guide Ecologists’ Thinking:One of the most fundamental concepts in ecology is ecosystem, defined as a group of living things that are dependent on one another and living in a particular habitat. Ecologists study how differing ecosystems function. Another key concept in ecology is ecological succession, the natural pattern of change occurring within every ecosystem when natural processes are undisturbed. This pattern includes the birth, development, death, and then replacement of natural communities. Ecologists have grouped communities into larger units called biomes, regions throughout the world classified according to physical features, including temperature, rainfall and type of vegetation. Another fundamental concept in ecology is balance of nature, the natural process of birth, reproduction, eating and being eaten, which keeps animal/plant communities fairly stable. Other key concepts include imbalances, energy, nutrients, population growth, diversity, habitat, competition, predation, parasitism, adaptation, coevolution, succession and climax communities and conservation.

  37. Key Assumptions that Ecologists Make:Patterns exist within animal/plant communities; these communities should be studied and classified; animals and plants often depend on one another and modify one another; and balances must be maintained within ecosystems. Implications of Ecology:The study of ecology leads to numerous implications for life on Earth. By studying balance of nature, for example, we can see when nature is out of balance, as in the current population explosion. We can see how pesticides, designed to kill pests on farm crops, also lead to the harm of mammals and birds, either directly or indirectly through food webs. We can also learn how over-farming causes erosion and depletion of soil nutrients. Point of View of Ecologists:Ecologists look at plants and animals and see them functioning in relationship with one another within their habitats, and needing to be in balance for the earth to be healthy and sustainable.

  38. Activity Three: Beginning to Figure Out the Logic of a Subject or Discipline Using your beginning understanding of the elements of reasoning, take turns completing these statements. The purpose of the discipline is… Some of the main questions pursued within the discipline are… Some of the important implications of studying the discipline are…

  39. Process • What important insights did you gain through doing these activities – insights about the elements of reasoning? • How might you better foster use and understanding of the elements of reasoning in your classes?

  40. Circle – Dots

  41. Elements of Reasoning • Conclusions, assumptions, points of view Think of a difficult situation in your life, a problem in your relationship w/ someone, a decision you have to make, or something important about CT and education. Formulate three good questions about that situation, using each of the three elements listed. Answer the questions as well as you can.

  42. For Example • Situation (from a student’s point of view): I’m considering dropping this course b/c it looks too hard. Question: What assumptions am I making about this situation? Answer: I am assuming it will be too hard – I wonder if that is accurate? Question: What conclusion should I draw? Answer: My conclusion is to wait and see. I need more information.

  43. Making the Standards Intuitive For X in the questions below, substitute the name of your discipline (course). Then answer them. • In what ways is it necessary to be clear in X? • What are the areas where people are most likely to be inaccurate in X? What are the most important aspects of X to master? • What are the dangers of giving insufficient responses in X? • In what ways are depth and breadth central to X? • How is precision most important in X?

  44. Discovering and Following out the Implications • Using the word critical in the sense of critical thinking, what would you say are the main earmarks of critical reading? • What is the difference between reading your text and reading it critically? • How about critical listening? • What is the difference between listening to a lecture in a course and listening to it critically? • Can a person listen critically and not disagree at all?

  45. Essential Idea:To learn well, we must write well.

  46. Short Writing: PhysicsAcceleration and Velocity You are Dr. Science, the question-and-answer person for a popular magazine called Practical Science. Readers of your magazine are invited to submit letters to Dr. Science, who answers them in “Dear Abby” style in a special section of the magazine. One day you receive the following letter:

  47. Dear Dr. Science: You’ve got to help me settle this argument I am having with my girlfriend. We were watching a baseball game several weeks ago when this guy hit a high pop-up straight over the catcher’s head. When it finally came down, the catcher caught it standing on home plate. Well, my girlfriend told me that when the ball stopped in midair just before it started back down, its velocity was zero, but its acceleration was not zero. I said she was stupid. If something isn’t moving at all, how could it have any acceleration?

  48. Ever since then, she has been making a big deal out of this and won’t let me kiss her. I love her, but I don’t think we can get back together until we settle this argument. We checked some physics books, but they weren’t very clear. We agreed that I would write to you and let you settle the argument. But, Dr. Science, don’t just tell us the answer. You’ve got to explain it so we both understand because my girlfriend is really dogmatic. She said she wouldn’t even trust Einstein unless he could explain himself clearly. Sincerely, Baseball Blues