Introduction to Critical Thinking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

introduction to critical thinking n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Critical Thinking PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Critical Thinking

play fullscreen
1 / 56
Introduction to Critical Thinking
684 Views
Download Presentation
booker
Download Presentation

Introduction to Critical Thinking

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction to Critical Thinking Concepts and Strategies

  2. 3 Key Questions Why do we need critical thinking? What is critical thinking? How do we design instruction to foster critical thought?

  3. Why do we need critical thinking? Critical thinking isn’t natural. • Walking vs. Ballet • Just rational enough

  4. Diagnosis Bias Tendency to ignore evidence or make it fit our preconceived preference or conclusion. EMT and Alaskan natives How Doctor’s Think the 7 min. diagnosis Performance Labels (SWAY) When we read! (The House)

  5. Belief Preservation Tendency to make evidence subservient to belief. “Tendency to use evidence to preserve our opinions rather than guide them.” (Van Gelder)

  6. Belief Preservation Francis Bacon – humans tend to see things through an “enchanted glass, full of superstition and imposture” rather than through a clear, transparent glass. • Intrinsic tendency toward illusion, distortion and error. “Invisibly corrupts our thinking and contaminates our beliefs” (Van Gelder)

  7. 3 tendencies Seek evidence that supports our existing belief and ignore contradicting evidence. Rate evidence as good or bad depending on whether or not it supports or conflicts with our belief. (egocentric standards) We stick to our beliefs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary.

  8. “Standards” TypicallyUsed in Thinking Typical Standards Two “It’s true because I believe it” (innate egocentrism) “It’s true because we believe it” (innate sociocentrism) “It’s true because I want to believe it” (innate wish fulfillment) “It’s true because I have always believed it.” (innate self-validation) “It’s true because it is in my selfish interest to believe it.” (innate selfishness)

  9. More Non-intellectual “Standards” It’s true because someone in a position of perceived power (or authority) said it is true. It’s true because it’s beyond my (our) ability to fully understand it. (lacking confidence in reason)

  10. Non-Critical Thinking Standards • Fun • Exciting • Feels good • Attention-getting • Popular • Patriotic • Free • Chic • Spontaneous • Advantageous • Easy • Beneficial to me • Deeply moving/felt

  11. Just as a skilled archer must adjust her aim for a breeze, so too does a critical thinker seek to be aware of his/her biases, blind spots, and assumptions.

  12. Critical Thinking Why is it Important? What is It? How Does it Improve Teaching and Learning?

  13. What is Critical Thinking? To be clear in writing: 1)      state 2)      elaborate (In other words…) 3)      exemplify and/or illustrate Write your understanding of critical thinking, in this form: 1)     Critical thinking is ….. 2)In other words… 3)For example …

  14. Critical Thinking is a self-directed process by which we take deliberate steps to think at the highest level of quality.

  15. Overview slide Thinking that assesses thinking Thinking that analyzes thinking critical thinking: disciplined, self-guided thinking aimed at living a rational life. thinking that combats its native egocentricity Thinking that develops within itself intellectual habits

  16. Critical Reading Strategy Work in pairs. Person A, Person B. Critically read the following slide together, using the following method: a.  Person B reads one sentence aloud, then states in his/her own words what has been read. In other words, person B interprets the sentence. b. Person A then either agrees with the interpretation or offers a different interpretation, adds to the interpretation, etc. c. Rotate roles after each sentence. Move down page. d.  During this process, do not critique what you are reading, merely interpret.

  17. Why Critical Thinking? The Problem: Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.

  18. A well cultivated critical thinker: raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively; comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.

  19. 3 Key Questions Why do we need critical thinking? What is critical thinking? How do we design instruction to foster critical thought?

  20. LOGIC OF Instruction Student Thinking Content

  21. Booth Tarkington, author “He had learned how to pass examinations by ‘cramming’; that is, in three or four days and nights he could get into his head enough of a selected fragment of some scientific or philosophical or literary or linguistic subject to reply plausibly to six questions out of ten. He could retain the information necessary for such a feat just long enough to give a successful performance; then it would evaporate utterly from his brain, and leave him undisturbed.” On what George Amberson had learned in college, from the Magnificant Ambersons (1918)}

  22. Circle – Dots

  23. Typical student beliefs. • Learning should be fun. • Learning should be easy. • If I do what the teacher says, that’s all that matters. • Learning means doing what the teacher says. • All I need to do is the absolute minimum to get an A. • I shouldn’t have to waste my time learning anything I can’t use. • I believe that learning biology is a waste of my time. • Cheating to get by is fine because all I need is the piece of paper (the degree/diploma) to get a job anyway.

  24. Three Types of “Knowledge” Inert Information Activated Ignorance Activated Knowledge

  25. Poincare “Science is built of facts the way a house is built of bricks, but an accumulation of facts is no more science than a pile of bricks is a house!”

  26. Content is: • Understood by thinking • Constructed by thinking • Modified by thinking • Applied by thinking • Questioned by thinking • Assessed by thinking

  27. Therefore, to learn content students have to think it into their thinking using their thinking.

  28. Critical thinking provides the tools students need to think through content. Critical thinking is a system of thinking that opens up all other systems of thinking.

  29. Critical thinking is the way you do everything you do

  30. The critical thinking mind is the educated mind The Critical Thinking Mind=The Educated Mind

  31. StandardsElementsTraits

  32. StateElaborateExemplify CLARITY 1. State:give a brief explanation 2. Elaborate:expand on your explanation 3. Exemplify:give a concrete example 4. Illustrate:use metaphor, analogy, picture

  33. SEEI STATE in your own words what someone else has said or written or the key concept, problem or question at issue. ELABORATE on your statement. In other words… EXEMPLIFY: give an example of the concept from your life and from the content. ILLUSTRATE: create an analogy, metaphor, simile, graph, chart, cartoon, etc.

  34. Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

  35. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

  36. Bloom’s Re-conceptualized Illustration Based on St. Edward’s University, Center for Teaching Excellence, 2001

  37. Comparing Approaches • Teacher-directed • Traditional mode of instruction in the USA • Student-centered • Students are engaged in the process of actively figuring something out / reasoning through a significant problem.

  38. Teacher-directed (confusing) There are 12 Christmas trees and five are cut down. How many are left standing? What intellectual moves does this assignment initiate? What intellectual skills are targeted?

  39. Teacher-directed (clearer) There are 12 Christmas trees standing. Of those, five are cut down. How many are left standing? What intellectual moves does this assignment initiate? What intellectual skills are targeted?

  40. Student-centered • Susan says that if there are 12 Christmas trees standing and of those five are cut down, then seven are left standing. But George says that is incorrect. Who is correct and why? How did you arrive at your answer? • Jim Braly, The Oregonian, Jan. 11, 2009

  41. Philosophy Example 2 Possible Traditional Assignment “As a group, discuss your reaction to Plato’s Crito.”

  42. Philosophy Example 2 cont’d An assignment that fosters critical thought may ask instead: “In a group of three, propose a list of significant questions you would like to have the teacher address or the class discuss regarding Plato’s Crito. Your initial list (which you will hand in to the instructor) should include a dozen or so questions…. (next slide)

  43. Then reach consensus on what you consider your three best questions. Your recorder will write these questions on the board and will explain to the class why your group considers them pertinent, interesting, and significant questions raised by Crito. Time: 15 minutes.” Source: Bean, p. 152

  44. Eight Questions Students Can Ask to Figure out the Logic of a Subject or Discipline: • What is the main purposeof the subject? • What are the key issues, problems, and questionsaddressed within the subject? • What kinds of information are pursued within the discipline? • What types of inferencesor judgments are made? • What key conceptsinform the discipline? • What key assumptionsunderlie the discipline? • What are some important implicationsof studying the discipline? • What points of view are fostered within the discipline?

  45. To what extent do you see any of the following acting as obstacles to substantive learning in your context? Intellectual arrogance Intellectual conformity Intellectual laziness Intellectual hypocrisy Competition Little confidence in reasoning

  46. How do you help students learn the skills needed to form clear, probing questions?

  47. Instructional Strategies What did we do today?

  48. SEEI STATE in your own words what someone else has said or written or the key concept, problem or question at issue. ELABORATE on your statement. In other words… EXEMPLIFY: give an example of the concept from your life and from the content. ILLUSTRATE: create an analogy, metaphor, simile, graph, chart, cartoon, etc.

  49. Critical Reading (1) Work in pairs. a.  Person B reads one sentence aloud, then states in his/her own words what has been read. In other words, person B interprets the sentence. b. Person A then either agrees with the interpretation or offers a different interpretation, adds to the interpretation, etc. c.  Do not critique, merely interpret. d. Switch roles and move on to next sentence.

  50. Role Play (2) • Partners • Purpose: Address two differing interpretations to an issue or problem. • ‘A’ takes a pro side. • ‘B’ argues con side. • Switch when prompted. • Usually after 2-3 minutes. • Develops intellectual depth and empathy.