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Historical Foundations of Education Dr. Janet Fredericks Northeastern Illinois University. Historical Issues & Themes. What are the recurring issues & themes? Why are they issues? How did they evolve? What is the current status of each?. Historical Themes. Appropriate Education

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Historical foundations of education dr janet fredericks northeastern illinois university
Historical Foundations of EducationDr. Janet FredericksNortheastern Illinois University

Historical issues themes
Historical Issues & Themes

  • What are the recurring issues & themes?

  • Why are they issues?

  • How did they evolve?

  • What is the current status of each?

Historical themes
Historical Themes

  • Appropriate Education

  • Organization & structure of education

  • Repeating conflicting views, interests & objectives

European roots
European Roots

  • Class/Caste & Gender Based Education

  • Religious Education

  • Major Educational Structures

Appropriate education

Appropriate Education



Religious ~ Class Linked


[Based on Class/Caste & Gender]

Religious education
Religious Education

  • Early Structures

    • Chantry Schools

    • Cathedral Schoolsevolved into:

      • universities

      • preparatory schools for universities

  • Post Reformation Structures

    • Luther/Melancthon utilized the Dual Track Model & developed vernacular schools for all children

Structures of education 1
Structures of Education [1]

  • Characteristics

  • Boys

  • [Noble girls tutored]

  • Latin/Greek

  • Classical

  • Preparatory Schools

  • Latin Grammar School

  • Lycee

  • Gymnasium

Structures of education 2 universities


Faculty Controlled

6000 students


Students = teenagers

M.A. with public

defense of thesis

College System

Problems with Townspeople


Student Controlled

2000 students


Students in their 30’s

Doctoral Degree after 10 years

No college system

Emphasized city &

political life

Structures of Education [2] Universities

Elements transmitted to americas
Elements Transmitted to Americas

  • Dual Track Education

  • Varied, Appropriate Education

  • Religion & Education are linked

  • Issues concerning vernacular education

  • University structure

Evolution of u s education
Evolution of U.S. Education





Periods &





of Secondary








Historical period to 1800

New England

Theocratic Society


First Compulsory School Laws

Schools financed by: taxes, tuition, land, licenses, donations and lotteries

Middle States


Highly Heterogeneous


First book on education

Emphasis on primary education

Lack of government


Historical Period: To 1800

Historical period to 1865
Historical Period: To 1865

Southern Education

  • Appropriate Education based on Caste, Class, Gender, and Circumstance

  • Agricultural Society and Economy

  • Strong neoclassic and chivalric influences

    • Oratory-Personal Libraries-Frontierism

  • Formal, Informal & Direct Experience

    are equally important as educational experiences

  • Catholic and Anglican Influences

Historical period to 18001

Thomas Jefferson

University of Virginia

Bill for the General Diffusion of Knowledge

Benjamin Franklin

Learned Societies &


Secularized Puritan


English Grammar School

[Instruction in English, utilitarian curriculum,

sense knowledge & scientific approach]

Historical Period: To 1800

Historical period new nation
Historical Period: New Nation

Need to Bind & Americanize the population

  • Government control of education [state level]

  • Need to teach for governance & population control, [later: immigration, urbanization & industrialization]

  • Need to establish & pay for schools

  • Need to develop teachers

  • Legislation

    • Northwest Ordinance -10 State Universities

    • State control of education chartered by 1821

      -Common Schools & Conversion Patterns

Educational structures to 1865 evolve some fade over time
Educational Structures: To 1865[Evolve - Some fade over time]


  • Dame Schools

  • Town Schools

  • Parochial [vernacular primary] schools

  • Latin Grammar Schools

  • English Grammar School

  • Private Venture Schools

  • Tutors

  • Postsecondary [Colonial, Princeton [Scot Model], Johns Hopkins [German/Graduate Education], State,

    Religious Affiliated colleges

Educational structures to 1865 evolve some fade over time1
Educational Structures: To 1865[Evolve - Some fade over time]

  • Academy- 1800 to 1870

    • College Prep. -Teacher Training

    • Military -Practical/Terminal

  • Subscription Societies, Working Men’s

    Societies, Sunday Schools, Infant Schools

  • Monitorial Schools

    Popular experiment, Lancaster & Bell,

    Student Instructors/Groups, Materials

    Low cost, Ineffective

Common school movement 1820 1860



Open to All

Locally Controlled

Publicly Supported

3 R’s, Health, Civics





Coalition of Super-

intendents, business,

teachers, some clergy,

politicians & labor

Influenced by 18th & 19th Century European


Concerns: language elimina-

tion, property rights & privacy

Common School Movement: 1820-1860

Secondary education 1840 1920 s
Secondary Education: 1840-1920’s






Secondary education 1840 1920 s1
Secondary Education:1840-1920’s


NEA - 1892 to 1893

What Subjects? How Long? Level? Manner?

Charles Eliot & University Professors

9 Committees with hearings


H.S. = 4 years Subjects = 1 year each

Subjects = Math, English, Science, History, Lang.

Teach all in the same way - Subject Centered

Carnegie Credit Unit

Secondary education 1840 1920 s2
Secondary Education:1840-1920’s

Commission for the Reorganization of

Secondary Education : 1911-1918

Clarence Kingsley & Professional Educators

Driven by: Curriculum specialists, psychologists & those concerned with student issues

Decisions: Seven Cardinal Principles

*Health *Worthy Home Membership

*3R’s + Expression *Citizenship

*Ethical Character *Vocational Skills

*Good use of leisure time

Postsecondary issues
Postsecondary Issues

  • Who gets in and how?

  • Vocational v. Academic

    • What do we teach?

    • How do we assess?

  • Who controls the “school”?

  • Who pays and how much?

  • Expansion of access:

    • Campus

    • Community College System

    • Technology

National interests state colleges and universities
National Interests: State Colleges and Universities

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1785

    • 16th section of each township for education

  • Federal Land Grant Policy

    • Two townships of land for state universities as each territory entered the Union

  • Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890

  • Special Institutions of Higher Education

    • Military Academies: Annapolis and West Point

    • Columbia Institute for the Deaf [Gallaudet] 1857

    • Howard University [After the Civil War]

Continua of issues
Continua of Issues

Community of


Public Service

Social Purpose

National Purpose

Social Control


Body of Studies





Personal Career

Attributes of land grant colleges
Attributes of Land Grant Colleges

  • Differed in character and location

    • Purdue

    • Alaska Agricultural College & School of Mines

  • Emphasized

    • Agriculture

    • Blending of practical and scientific

  • Provided studies in field related to agriculture

    • Home Economics

    • Veterinary Medicine

  • Colleges were committed to industry and stressed:

    • Technology

    • Engineering

    • Applied Science

  • Many have large extension programs to make education available throughout the state

Junior community colleges
Junior & Community Colleges

  • 1892, President William Rainey Harper of the University of Chicago

    • divides undergraduate curriculum into first 2 years of Academic College and last 2 years of University College

  • 1901 Joliet [Illinois] is the first junior college established in the United States

  • 1920’s & 1930’s emphasis placed on vocational & technical programs as “Terminal Programs”

  • After World War II State “Master Plans” [CA, NY, IL, FL] emphasize an expanded role for junior colleges

Junior community colleges continued
Junior & Community CollegesContinued

  • Currently community colleges provide:

    • 2 year liberal arts

    • Adult education

    • Vocational & technical training

    • Cultural, economic & civic center for the people it serves, emphasizes links between the college and the community

Formation of the modern university 1865 1917
Formation of the Modern University: 1865-1917

  • Liberal Arts College, leading to a bachelor’s degree [Based on the English College model]

  • German Universities emphasizing:

    • Freedom to teach [Lehrfreiheit]

    • Freedom to learn [Lernfreiheit]

  • Johns Hopkins University [founded in 1876] is the prototype, which was emulated by other U.S. universities

  • Scholars were to be conscious of:

    • Conservation of knowledge & ideas

    • Interpretation of knowledge & ideas

    • The search for truth

    • Training of students to carry on work

Formation of the modern university 1865 1917 continued
Formation of the Modern University: 1865-1917 Continued

  • Focal point is the undergraduate College of Arts and Sciences, surrounded by graduate college and professional schools

  • Charles Eliot [Harvard President 1869 - 1909]

    • Introduced the Elective System

    • President as CEO of large educational corporation

    • Greater relationship between K -12 Schools and universities

Diversity issues in u s education historical perspective by cultural language or racial group
Diversity Issues in U.S. Education : Historical Perspective [By Cultural, Language or Racial Group]

  • African-American - Good historical development and analysis

  • African [Non-U.S.] Documentation is sporadic, frequently blended into African-American experience

  • Native American - Interesting Studies, but not a comprehensive analysis

  • Hispanic - Diverse groups, studies have focused on language issues, very incomplete

  • Asian-American- Diverse Groups, few studies

Recurring conflicts
Recurring Conflicts

  • Language of instruction

  • Relationship between religion & education

  • Appropriate Education: By ability, class &


  • Vocational vs. Academic

  • Subject Centered vs. Student Centered

  • Who pays for what? - Who controls what?

  • Access

  • Assessment