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Case Studies on Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD) Development GJXDM Users Conference Atlanta, Georgia June 9, 2005 IEPD Goals and Objectives Define IEPDs ( Information Exchange Package Documentation ) to support interoperability among justice systems

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Case studies on information exchange package documentation iepd development l.jpg

Case Studies on Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD) Development

GJXDM Users Conference

Atlanta, Georgia

June 9, 2005

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IEPD Goals and Objectives (IEPD) Development

  • Define IEPDs (Information Exchange Package Documentation) to support interoperability among justice systems

  • Expand and refine GJXDM/DD through experienced feedback; resolve vague definitions

  • Constrain/restrict down to key choices to support interoperability

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Goals of the IEPD Process (IEPD) Development

  • More consistent development of GJXDM conformant schemas

  • Produce artifacts that help project stakeholders

  • Provides a mechanism to synthesize domain/business knowledge of SMEs

  • Supports artifact reuse

  • Leverages open standards

  • Works with standards based tools that are readily available in the public domain

  • Shares lessons learned/best practices

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IEPDs Developed 2004-2005 (IEPD) Development

  • Sentencing Order

  • Amber Alert

  • Field Interview Report

  • Charging Document

  • Incident Reporting

  • Uniform Rap Sheet

  • Booking/Arrest Report

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Information Exchange (IEPD) DevelopmentPackage Documentation Process

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IEPD Business Issues (IEPD) Development

  • Business goals are the primary driver

  • Participation by business representatives

  • IEP built upon use case

  • Justice exchange data does not belong to only one domain

    • Example: Protection from Abuse Order

  • GJXDM conformance

  • Reuse of artifacts

  • Every IEP is a potential model

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IEPD Workgroup (IEPD) Development

  • Representative group of exchange partners

  • Inclusion of business SMEs and technical experts

  • Selection of members is important

  • Consensus process

  • IEPs cannot be built by technical staff or business staff in isolation, partnership is critical

  • Skilled, experienced facilitator important

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Workgroup: Facilitator skills (IEPD) Development

  • Organization and project management

  • Neutrality

  • Understanding of the domain

  • Understanding of IEPD process

  • Understanding of domain modeling

    • UML

    • Object-oriented design

  • Understanding of GJXDM

  • Awareness of national reference material

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Workgroup: SME member skills (IEPD) Development

  • Understanding of business processes

    • Triggering and subsequent processes

    • Required content

    • Relationships

  • Ability to describe the semantic meaning of the data

  • Ability to “think outside the box”

    • As-is processes versus to-be processes

    • Openness to change semantic concepts to align with GJXDM

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Workgroup: Tech member skills (IEPD) Development

  • Understanding of GJXDM

    • Source of good ideas for domain model

    • Think ahead to mapping

  • Understanding of data availability and needs at exchange endpoints

  • Understanding of basic domain modeling concepts (including O/O design)

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Project planning (IEPD) Development

  • Obviously, depends on the document

  • Rough guidelines:

    • Domain modeling (face-to-face, 2-3 days)

    • Mapping (face-to-face for 1-2 days, another 1-2 days remote)

    • Schema building (facilitator or tech member(s) only, 2-3 days)

    • Packaging (1 day)

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IEPD Process (IEPD) Development

  • JIEM/Exchange Requirements

  • Domain Modeling

  • GJXDM Mapping

  • Subset Schema (SSGT)

  • Extension, Document, Constraint

  • Sample XML Instance

  • Packaging

  • Horizontal Analysis/Reuse

  • Education and Outreach

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Incident Reporting IEPD (IEPD) Development

  • Project funded by COPS Office

  • Participants:

    • Local Law Enforcement

    • State Law Enforcement

      • NIBRS, UCR, Repository

    • FBI

    • Prosecution

    • Statistical Crime Reporting

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Domain Modeling: Motivation (IEPD) Development

  • In building an IEP, it is very helpful to have:

    • A precise definition/description of document structure

    • A description that can be understandable and verifiable by all stakeholders (bridge the communication gap)

    • A description technique that facilitates interactive design

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Pros (IEPD) Development

Precise and formal, yet…

Graphical and understandable by stakeholders

Supports O/O concepts inherent in XML Schema

Supported by low-cost tools

Industry/developer buy-in and adoption

Domain Modeling: UML

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Cons (IEPD) Development

Need to educate stakeholders about notation

Learning curve for modeler (learning notation)

Can lock into tools if you’re not careful

Domain Modeling: UML

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Domain Modeling: Associations (IEPD) Development

  • Associations describe how the classes relate to one another

  • Example: A police officer issues a citation

  • Can be verbs from the domain, or simply descriptions of relationships

  • When modeling hierarchical document structures, associations are navigable (uni-directional)

  • Associations indicated with open-ended arrows

  • Can be named; if not, read as “relates to,” “contains,” or “has”

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GJXDM as source of domain concepts (IEPD) Development

  • XSTF has already done a lot of good thinking about concepts in the justice domain

  • GJXDM contains 400 nouns (complex types)

  • Use these if they fit…don’t reinvent the wheel

  • Don’t use them if they don’t fit…don’t restrict your domain model to what’s in GJXDM

  • Remember: need to build a model that the business people can understand and agree to

  • Most business people struggle to validate structures documented in schema

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Mapping to GJXDM (IEPD) Development

  • To build schema, each class/property in the domain model must be mapped to a type/element in GJXDM

  • Sometimes mapping can be represented in path-like notation

  • Sometimes it can only be described in prose

  • Makes automated mapping (and schemas generated from the domain model) very difficult

  • Sometimes domain concepts are missing from GJXDM; these are mapped to elements in an extension schema (your own namespace)

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Mapping to GJXDM (IEPD) Development

  • Spreadsheet with four columns:

    • Class

    • Property or Association

    • GJXDM Mapping (path or prose, extensions color-coded)

    • Notes

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GJXDM Mapping: Incident Report (IEPD) Development

  • Incident Report Mapping

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SSGT Want List (IEPD) Development

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SSGT Want List (IEPD) Development

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Packaging (IEPD) Development

  • Subset Schema

  • Constraint Schema

  • Extension Schema

  • Document Schema

  • Sample XML Instance

  • IEPD

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Tools (IEPD) Development

  • Wide tool support for UML

    • Visio

    • Eclipse plug-ins

    • ArgoUML

    • Rational Rose and XDE

  • Keep in mind that the primary purpose of a domain model is communication.

  • Many people beyond you (and your IT department) will be reading the model, so it has to be accessible to them using tools they already have (or can acquire cheaply).

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XMI (IEPD) Development

  • XML Metadata Interchange standard

  • Evolved by the Object Management Group (OMG)

  • XML representation of object-oriented models

  • Useful for custom reporting from the data in your model

  • Does not contain information about the graphics

  • XMI allows generic metadata to be stored along with the entities in your model

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XMI (IEPD) Development

  • Metadata can then be extracted and reported

  • Use ordinary XML technologies for reporting

    • SAX, DOM parsing

    • XML-object binding

    • XSLT

  • Example: documenting information sources and reporting with XSLT

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Lessons Learned (IEPD) Development

  • Facilitation is critical

  • Can be successful in bringing together business and technical experts

  • Iterative process

  • Domain modeling can accelerate the development process

  • For most domain structures GJXDM is a good fit, Exceptions: Associations

  • Project completed with low cost open tools

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Resources (IEPD) Development

  • Information Exchange Package Documentation Guidelines

  • Process Overview whitepaper (by, adopted by IJIS XML Advisory Committee)

  • Example IEPDs

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Resources (IEPD) Development

  • Domain-Driven Design, by Eric Evans

  • UML Distilled, by Martin Fowler

  • Analysis Patterns, by Martin Fowler

  • Modeling XML Applications with UML, by David Carlson

  • Object-Oriented Design Heuristics, by Arthur Riel

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IEPD Goals and Objectives (IEPD) Development

  • Remember: the goal is to exchange messages, not to build databases

  • The more we standardize the container and the payload of components, the more it supports our goals

  • Standard, non-proprietary, consistently structured artifacts helps all of us to leverage IEPDs as models for information sharing

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Thank you! (IEPD) Development

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Case Studies on Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD) Development

GJXDM Users Conference

Atlanta, Georgia

June 9, 2005