Words are broken into parts Prefixes are at thebeginningof words Suffixes are at the end of words A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic form A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word. The Word
One way to begin studying basic sentence structures is to consider the traditional parts of speech (also called word classes): nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections • the parts of speech come in many varieties and may show up just about anywhere in a sentence. • To know for sure what part of speech a word is, we have to look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning, position, and use in a sentence. The Parts of Speech
What is it? Explanation • The basic parts of a sentence are the subject, the verb, and (often, but not always) the object. This is the noun or pronoun that comes after the preposition • The subject is usually a noun--a word that names a person, place, or thing. The verb (or predicate) usually follows the subject and identifies an action or a state of being. An object receives the action and usually follows the verb. Parts of a sentence
Verbs By Mrs. Caro
A verb shows action. There’s no doubt! It tells what the subject does, Like sing and shout! Action verbs are fun to do! Now it’s time to name a few! So clap your hands and join our rhyme! Say those verbs in record time! Wiggle, Jiggle, Turn around Raise your arms and stomp the ground! Shake your finger and wink your eye! Wave those action verbs GOODBYE! VERBS
An action verb that describes an action that is happening now is called a present tense verb. The bird flies through the sky. Flies is a present tense verb because it is happening right now. Present verbs
These are Action Verbs: clap coughed swallowed awake sang ride ran
Many present tense verbs end with s, but some end with es, or ies. cries sleeps Present tense verbs splashes
Verbs which tell about actions which happened some time ago are past tense verbs. The dog wanted a bone. Wanted is a past tense verb because the action has already happened. Past Verbs
Many past tense verbs end with ed, but some end with d, oried. tried clapped Past tense verbs played
Verbs which tell about actions which are going to happen are future tense verbs. We will awaken at six a.m. Will awaken is a future tense verb because the action has not yet happened. Future Verbs
Future tense verbs use special words to talk about things that will happen: will, going to, shall, aim to, etc. going to start will enjoy Future tense verbs shall email
A helping verb works with a main verb to help you understand what action is taking place. Elmer was using the computer. Helping Verbs
Other things to keep in mind: • Not every sentence will have a helping verb with the main verb. • When you see an "ing" verb such as "running", be on the lookout for a helping verb also. Helping Verbs
Sometimes there is another word which separates the helping verb from the main verb. One common example is "not", as in: The boy couldn't find his socks. The helping verb is could and the main verb is find. Helping Verbs
Locate the subject Then ask yourself, “What is it doing?” The dog barked. Who? dog “What did the dog do?” To find the verb: barked The verb is barked, it’s what the dog is doing.
Let’s Practice: The big lion roared loudly. Who? Lion “What did the lion do?” roared The verb isroared, it’s what the lion is doing.
Let’s Practice: The lighthouse shines brightly. What? lighthouse “What does the lighthouse do?” shines The verb isshines,it’s what the lighthouse does.
Let’s Practice: The snowman waves his hat to us. Who? Snowman “What did the snowman do?” waves The verb iswaves, it’s what the snowman is doing.
Let’s Practice: Alexander takes his bath. Who? Alexander “What does Alexander do?” takes The verb istakes, it’s what Alexander is doing.
Let’s Practice: Sally dances in the recital. Who? Sally “What does Sally do?” dances The verb isdances, it’s what Sally is doing.
Let’s Practice: Mrs. Smith arrives late. Who? Mrs. Smith “What did Mrs. Smith do?” arrives The verb isarrives, it’s what Mrs. Smith does.
Let’s Practice: Stars shine brightly at night. What? stars “What did the stars do?” shine The verb isshine, it’s what the stars are doing.
Let’s Practice: Time flies when you’re having fun. What? time “What does time do?” flies The verb isflies, it’s what time is doing.
Let’s Practice: Tommy plays baseball every year. Who? Tommy “What does Tommy do?” plays The verb isplays, it’s what Tommy does.
Let’s Practice: Jacob beats on his drum all day. Who? Jacob “What does Jacob do?” beats The verb isbeats, it’s what Jacob is doing.
Let’s Practice: The bumble bee buzzes near the flower. What? bee “What does the bee do?” buzzes The verb isbuzzes, it’s what the bee is doing.
*Asimple sentence is a sentence with just one independent clause (also called a main clause)*Acompound sentencecontains at least two independent clauses*A complex sentencecontains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause:*Acompound-complex sentencecontains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause: Four Basic Sentence Structures
A common way to connect related words, phrases, and even entire clauses is to coordinate them--that is, connect them with a basic coordinating conjunction such as "and" or "but." Coordination
Independent clauses can be connected in a variety of ways: 1. By a comma and little conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes so). 2. By a semicolon, by itself. 3. By a semicolon accompanied by a conjunctive adverb (such as however, moreover, nevertheless, as a result, consequently, etc.). 4. And, of course, independent clauses are often not connected by punctuation at all but are separated by a period. Combining sentences
To show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another, we rely on subordination--that is, treating one word group as less important. Which he bought two years ago Has already needed repairs My brother’s car Comma Comma Adjective Clauses • Always put a comma before the word WHICH. The adjective clause develops, but is not required. • Never put a comma before the word THAT-this indicates the information is NEEDED
since • so [that implied], so that • than • that • though • unless • when, whenever • where, wherever, whereas • whether • while • after • although • as • because • before • even though • if, even if • in order that • once • provided that Subordinate Conjunctions
Use a comma if you subordinate the first of the two clauses. Even though cat hair clung to Shelly’s pantlegs during her interview, she still got the job. The second clause has less emphasis because its thought is incomplete. Combining sentences
An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames another word in a sentence--most often a noun that immediately precedes it. Appositive constructions offer concise ways of describing or defining a person, place, or thing. ALWAYS put a COMMA around the phrase. Shelly , WHO IS A NURSE, likes cats Appositives Phrases
Like an adjective clause, an adverb clause is always dependent on (or subordinate to) an independent clause an adverb clause usually modifies a verb, though it can also modify an adjective, an adverb, or even the rest of the sentence in which it appears. Here is the description of the table. You may change or delete this text as you wish. This table is compatible with PowerPoint 97 to 2007. Adverb Clauses
Use semicolons to join independent clauses • Use a semicolon only if the clauses are closely related. • Examples: • Happiness isn't something you experience; it's something you remember. • We lavish on animals the love we are afraid to show to people. They might not return it; or worse, they might. Semi-Colon
Use semicolons with conjunctive adverbs or introductory expressions When I eat alone, I leave a mess; however, what’s worse is when everyone laughs at me. The movie was awesome; in fact, it was so funny I cried Semi-Colon’s
A colon means "that is to say" or "here's what I mean." Colons and semicolons should never be used interchangeably. Use a colon to introduce a series of items. Do not capitalize the first item after the colon (unless it's a proper noun). I need an assistant who can do the following: input data, write reports, and complete tax forms. Avoid using a colon before a list when it directly follows a verb or preposition Wrong: I've seen the greats, including: Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep. Right: I've seen the greats, including Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep. . Colons
Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together (-) • Hyphenate two or more words when they come before a noun they modify and act as a single idea. This is called a compound adjective. • an off-campus apartment • When writing out new, original, or unusual compound nouns, writers should hyphenate whenever doing so avoids confusion. • I changed my diet and became a no-meater. Hyphens
Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together (-) • An often overlooked rule for hyphens: The adverb very and adverbs ending in -ly are not hyphenated. • Incorrect:the finely-tuned watch (describes adjective) • Correct: Correct:the friendly-looking dog (describes verb) • Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. • more than two-thirds of registered voters Hyphens
Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things. • We have a two-year-old child Hyphenate prefixes when they come before proper nouns or proper adjectives • Trans-American flight • Mid-June is when the party is Hyphenate all words beginning with the prefixes self-, ex- (i.e., former), and all-. Suffixes are not usually hyphenated. Some exceptions: -style, -elect, -free, -based. Hyphens
Sometimes you have some information which needs to be added to a sentence, and that little bit of information is EXTEMELY important and you’ll want the reader to pay attention to that information • You are the friend—my only friend—who offered to help me. • indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought • I wish you would—oh, never mind. DASHES