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Language and Communication. Language Nonhuman Primate Communication Nonverbal Communication. Language. Primary means of communication Transmitted through learning Associations between words and what they stand for Past and future. Nonhuman Primate Communication. Call Systems

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language and communication

Language and Communication

Language

Nonhuman Primate Communication

Nonverbal Communication

language
Language

Primary means of communication

Transmitted through learning

Associations between words and what they stand for

Past and future

nonhuman primate communication
Nonhuman Primate Communication
  • Call Systems
    • Natural communication systems of other primates
    • Only humans can speak
  • Sign language
    • Recent experiments have shown that apes can learn true language
    • Nonhuman primates have shown the capacity for cultural transmission
    • Linguistic displacement
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication
  • Kinesics- the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
    • Influenced by culture
    • Prevalence and meaning vary cross-culturally
    • Communicate social differences
language includes the following abilities
Language includes the following abilities:

Communicates

Uses signs and symbols

Expresses an infinite number of ideas

Has rules

Can indicate time and space

language thought and culture
Language, Thought, and Culture
  • Chomsky- the human brain contains a limited set of rules (universal grammar) for organizing language
    • All humans have similar linguistic abilities
    • Creole language
  • The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    • Argued that the grammatical categories of particular languages lead their speakers to think about things in a different way
    • Languages may shape though, but not restrict it
focal vocabulary
Focal Vocabulary
  • Lexicon influences perception
  • Specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
  • Changes most readily
  • Changes in culture produce changes in language and thought
  • Semantics
    • Crash can mean auto accident, a drop in the Stock Market, to attend a party without being invited, ocean waves hitting the shore or the sound of a cymbals being struck together
sociolinguistics
Sociolinguistics

How do different speakers use a given language?

How do linguistic differences correlate with social diversity and class, ethnic, and gender differences?

How is language used to express, reinforce, or resist power?

Linguistic change occurs in society

When ways of speaking are associate with social factors, they are imitated and they spread

gender speech contrasts
Gender Speech Contrasts

Men and women tend to differ in the phonology, grammar, and vocabulary they use

Women- Oh dear, Oh fudge, Goodness!

Men- Hell and Damn

Female adjectives- adorable, charming, sweet, cute, lovely, divine, fabulous

Describe the color