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Indian Removal Act – 1830 (Jackson) Worcester v. Georgia - 1832 (Marshall) Trail of Tears – 1838 (Van Buren). When Natives and Settlers Collide. http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/videos/trail_of_tears. John Marshall is still Chief Justice, and still ruling in favor of F ederal power

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when natives and settlers collide

Indian Removal Act – 1830 (Jackson)

Worcester v. Georgia - 1832 (Marshall)

Trail of Tears – 1838 (Van Buren)

When Natives and Settlers Collide


other important court cases

John Marshall is still Chief Justice, and still ruling in favor of Federal power

        • Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – applied judicial review to state laws
        • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)- prohibited states from taxing Federal Institutions
        • Gibbons v. Ogden (1821)- established Federal control over interstate commerce
Other Important Court Cases:
writing notebook entry 10

Define Manifest Destiny- and what does this term mean for American Expansion?

And how does this painting depict Manifest Destiny? What are some symbols?

Writing Notebook Entry # 10

The Adams-Onís Treaty, also called the Transcontinental Treaty, was signed on February 22, 1819, by representatives of the US and Spain. The treaty transferred Florida to the US, defined the boundary between Spanish and U.S. holdings, and extinguished Spanish claims in Oregon Country. This map shows the area of the Florida cession, the border defined by the treaty, and the regions held by Spain, Britain, and the US after the treaty's signing.

spanish borderlands

With Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, Spain still owned what would become the US states of California, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Colorado and Nevada- these were known as the Spanish Border Colonies of New Mexico, California, and Texas.

Only New Mexico attracted many European settlers (about 40,000 by 1821)

Lacking settlers, Spain tried to convert natives to Christianity to populate their missions in California (20 missions with 18,000 Native American Converts by 1821)

Spanish Borderlands
america spreads

In 1820, Mexico revolted against Spain, and won its independence in 1821.

  • Americans began to desire these now Mexican territories of New Mexico, California, and Texas.
  • They said it was the Manifest Destiny of the US to spread from the Atlantic all the way to the Pacific.
America Spreads

“And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.”

- John L. O'Sullivan

December 27, 1845, New York Morning News,

western settlement

The first Americans in this area were fur trappers (beaver) and mountain men, such as Jedediah Smith. These men mapped out the routes through the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin of Utah, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Later settlers would follow their paths to California and Oregon (California and Oregon Trails)

Western Settlement
oregon trail california trail
Oregon Trail California Trail
  • The most popular trail west was the Oregon Trail out to the Willamette Valley farmland.
  • 2000 miles long and hard journey
  • People traveled in Wagon Trains…around 5,000 settlers here in the 1840’s (“Oregon Fever”)
  • Followed the Oregon Trail, until Snake River, then forked off over the Sierra Nevada Mountains, out to California
mormon trail santa fe trail
Mormon Trail Santa Fe Trail
  • Bringham Young and his Mormon followers settled in Great Salt Lake area, called the Zion Settlement
  • In the 1850’s the Government forced the Mormons to accept federal authority, and area became Utah.
  • Trade across the Great Plains with New Mexico’s Capital Santa Fe. American manufactured goods were traded for Mexican silver, mules, horses and fur
texas americans move in
Texas: Americans move in
  • Of all the western lands, Texas was the easiest for Americans to settle.
  • Lots of wide-open fertile land and, in 1821, only 4,000 Mexicans (Tejanos) lived there.
  • The Mexican Government allowed Americans to move to Texas and get cheap land grants, provided that they:

1) Convert to Catholicism

2) Free their slaves (as per the Mexican Constitution)

3) Become Mexican citizens

  • Americans (Anglo-Texans) began settling quickly in Texas under the leadership of Stephen Austin. By 1835, there were 30,000 Americans in Texas.
revolt remember the alamo

Tensions between greatly outnumbered (6 to 1) Tejanos and Anglo-Texans mounted.

After an 1834 military coup in Mexico, established a authoritarian government, Texans (both Tejano and Anglo- Texans) revolted, declaring Texas the Lone Star Republic.

To crush the rebellion, Mexican General Santa Anna attacked the small American Force at the Alamo and had all survivors executed.

It became a rallying cry for Texans.

Revolt: “Remember The Alamo!”
san jacinto

At the battle of San Jacinto (April, 1836) an army, under the leadership of Sam Houston, crushed Santa Anna, and Texas won its independence.

  • But the borders will be disputed by the Mexican Government.
  • Sam Houston elected President of Texas…he will eventually go on to become the governor of Texas and a US Senator.
San Jacinto
entry 11 should the united states annex texas

What were the arguments for and against annexation?

  • Why did Texas want to be annexed?
  • Who were some specific people for and against Texas’ annexation?
  • What is the difference between annexation and statehood?

Note: see your notes and your book for help as needed.

ENTRY # 11 Should the United States Annex Texas?
james k polk
James K Polk
  • A Jacksonian Democrat
  • 11th President
  • Served only one term
  • His platform as an expansionist presidential candidate 1844 in:

-Annex Texas

-Annex Oregon

(Ran against Henry Clay, Whig and ant-expansionist)

texas annexed

A month before Polk took office (in December, 1844) Texas was annexed by the United States and immediately became a slave state. John Tyler was President).

Texas Annexed

The Annexation of Texas to the Union , by Donald M. Yena

54 40 or fight

Polk had promised the American people that he would annex Oregon up to the 54th parallel.

Actually ended up cutting a deal to avoid war with Britain (at 49th parallel).

Oregon territory (Modern day Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) annexed, but Oregon not a state until 1859.

Northerners felt betrayed – why?

54’40 or Fight!
mexican american war 1846

The annexation of Texas led to diplomatic trouble with Mexico, so Polk sent John Sidell to negotiate the Texas border dispute with Mexico and to persuade Mexico to sell US New Mexico and California.

In the meantime, Polk also sent Zachary Taylor and American troops to the disputed Texas border between the Rio Grande and the Nueces river (provoking war?).

While waiting for the inevitable – the Mexican army to attack our troops in the disputed territory, Polk wrote a declaration of war. He was able to use that declaration on May 13, 1846, when Congress voted to declare war after a Mexican attack on a US army patrol.

Mexican-American War: 1846
the mexican american war was

Fought almost entirely on Mexican soil

Fought by relatively small, but far better supplied American armies (and navy)

Led by superior, well trained US Officers (Zachary Taylor, Winifred Scott, Robert E. Lee, and Ulysses S. Grant)

A sweeping victory for the United States.

Fairly short – ended after a year and a half of fighting, with Americans capturing Mexico City in September, 1847

The Mexican -American War Was…
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo

US won the disputed part of Texas (with the border set at the Rio Grande)

US paid Mexico 15 million dollars in exchange for California and New Mexico.

Treaty of GuadAlupe Hidalgo
wilmot proviso increases sectional tensions

First proposed by Penn. Congressman, David Wilmot in 1846

Would have banned slavery in all the territory won from Mexico in the M-A War.

For 15 years straight it passed the House of Representatives but failed in the Senate.

Increased sectional tensions …Prelude to Civil War

Wilmot Proviso Increases Sectional TensionS
gadsden purchase

In 1853 the US bought a strip of Mexico so that they could build a transcontinental railroad.

This, combined with the other territory won/purchased from Mexico, made up the modern contiguous continental US.

Gadsden Purchase
gold rush increased the pace of migration

In 1848 gold was found in California, and the Gold Rush was on…

In 1849 alone, 80,000 “49ers” headed to California in search of gold.

California’s population went from 14,000 in 1847 to 225,000 in 1852.

In October, 1849, California applied for statehood as a free state, which would upset the balance between free and slave states in the Senate. Here we go again…

Gold rush increased the pace of migration