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Innate Knowledge (what an organism is born with) Experience leads to changes in knowledge and behavior Learning refers to the process of adaptation Of behavior to experience. Memory refers to the permanent records that Underlie this adaptation. How experience changes an organism

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Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Innate Knowledge

(what an organism is born with)

Experience leads to changes in knowledge

and behavior

Learning refers to the process of adaptation

Of behavior to experience.

Memory refers to the permanent records that

Underlie this adaptation.


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

How experience changes an organism

Learning Perspective

EVENT Change in

Behavior

Memory (Cognitive) Perspective

EVENT Change in what

organism knows


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Learning vs Cognitive (Memory) Perspectives

Learning focuses on simple tasks

Pavlovian Conditioning

built-in food salivation

reflex

US UR

CStone food salivation

tone salivation

new learned

association


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Operant Conditioning

Animal makes random response

then accidentally presses bar

R Re

(response) (reward or

reinforcement)

Animal is more likely to press bar

Memory perspective focuses on complex tasks

Recall

Present a list of words(STUDY)

(wait)

Write down all the words(TEST)


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

  • Word Completion

  • S M T O

  • What’s the word?

  • Question answering

  • What is the red pigment that carries

  • oxygen in the blood called?

  • The Learning Perspective uses Animals as

  • Subjects

  • can control environment

  • belief that laws of learning apply to all animals


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

  • The memory perspective uses humans

  • we care more about humans

  • language stimuli

  • The learning perspective takes an Associationistic

  • Approach

  • Mind is a collection of innate reflexes and learned

  • associations stored in the brain

  • Complex behavior is gradually built up out of

  • simple associations


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Memory perspective adopts

the information processing approach

The brain is a computer

  • It has software or programming called the mind

  • It has a “programming language”

  • Experience constantly adds to the program

  • It has a “central processor”

  • (innate knowledge)

  • It has a large “hard disk”

  • (long-term store)


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

42

unconditioned

stimulus

(US)

“forty-two”

unconditioned

response

(UR)

NID Experiment

Learning “It’s a conditioning study!”

NID 42 “forty-two”

conditioned

stimulus

(CS)

after learningNID “forty-two”

Memory “It’s a memory experiment”

cue item-to-be-recalled

studyNID 42

testNID ?

cued recall


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

food

US

air in eye

shock

salivation

UR

blink

“ouch!”

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

Pavlovian Conditioning

Definitions

US is paired with CS

CS US

tone food salivation

tone salivation

CR

conditioned

response

Sometimes the CR is like the UR

Sometimes the CR tries to compensate for US

Example: If US is shock, CR is fear

and behavior that compensates

for pain


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Forgetting Conditioning

Acquisition

Extinction

Strength

of CR

US is

paired

with CS

CS never

paired

with US

Extinction

Is it because conditioning is gone?

OR

because conditioning is inhibited?


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Inhibition Hypothesis

+

CS US CS US

acquisitioninhibition

extinction

Loss Hypothesis

+

CS US CS US CS US

acquisitionextinction

Evidence Favors Inhibition Hypothesis

1.Spontaneous Recovery

prob.

of

CR

wait a while

time

Suggests that the original learning was not lost


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

2. Disinhibition Effect

External Inhibition

light food salivation

light salivation

light sali …TONE!

(salivation stops)

light food salivation

light salivation

light sali

extinction light sa

light nothing

light TONE!

salivation starts

again

Tone inhibits the inhibition from extinction

Shows extinction is due to inhibition, not loss


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

3. Stimulus-compounding experiments

(Rescorla, 1979)

Experimental Control

Group Group

Phase 1 Tone Shock(same)

Tone  Fear

Phase 2 Tone + Light - 0 Tone - 0

Extinction

no shockLight - 0

stimulus

compound

Phase 3 Light + Buzzer - Shock

Test to seeExperimental group develops

if lightfear more slowly

is inhibited

The light became a conditioned inhibitor of fear

Extinction leads to inhibition


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

What is learned in Pavlovian Conditioning?

S-R viewORS-S view

tone CS tone CS

food  salivation food  salivation

US R US R

Which one is right?


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Sensory Pre-conditioning Experiment

Phase 1 Buzzer . . . Light

CS2 CS1

Phase 2 Light . . . Food Salivation

US

Light Salivation

Phase 3 (test) Buzzer . . . ?

What happens?

S-R view predicts no salivation

S-S view predicts salivation

Results show salivation supporting S-S view


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Sensory pre-conditioning shows S-S association is learned

Buzzer Light Food

predicts

buzzer S-S Salivation

causes

salivation

Buzzer Light Food

predicts

buzzer S-R Salivation

does not

cause

salivation

Conclude: at least some of the learning is S-S


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Konorski’s (1948) second-order conditioning experiment

Phase 1 light . . . food  salivation

Phase 2 buzzer . . . light  salivation

buzzer salivation

This is second-order conditioning

Phase 3 light . . . shock  leg withdrawal

Test phase buzzer . . .

What happens?

salivation or leg withdrawal


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

S-S prediction for Konorski’s study

light foodsalivation

buzzer

S-S

S-S

After phase 2; buzzer leads to salivation

Phase 1 light . . . food  salivation

Phase 2 buzzer . . . light  salivation

buzzer salivation


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

shockleg withdrawal

S-S prediction for Konorski’s study

light foodsalivation

buzzer

S-S

S-S

S-S

Phase 3 light . . . shock  leg withdrawal

Test phase buzzer . . .

What should happen?

LEG WITHDRAWAL


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

S-R predictions for Konorski study

foodsalivation

light

S-R


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

buzzer

S-R predictions for Konorski study

foodsalivation

light

S-R

S-R

After phase 2; buzzer leads to salivation

Phase 1 light . . . food  salivation

Phase 2 buzzer . . . light  salivation

buzzer salivation


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

shock

leg withdrawal

buzzer

S-R predictions for Konorski study

foodsalivation

light

S-R

S-R

S-R

Phase 3 light . . . shock  leg withdrawal

Test phase buzzer . . .

What should happen?

SALIVATION

What REALLY happens? SALIVATION

Therefore, S-R view is supported


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Conclude:

Both S-S and S-R learning occur


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

When do you get conditioning?

Pavlov “If CS and US occur

at around the same time”

Temporal Contiguity View

Modern View (Rescorla)

“If the CS predicts whether

the US will happen”

Contingency View


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Contingency

Perfect positive contingency

thunder no thunder

lightning 20 0

no lightning 0 345

prob (thunderlightning) = 1.0

prob (thunderno lightning) = 0

Strong negative contingency

sun no sun

stars 1 200

no stars 200 60


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Contiguity without Contingency

10 20

20 40

a b

c d

airplane

no plane

Stim 1

No Stim 1

no

Stim 2 Stim2

no

bird bird

prob.

(birdplane) = .33

prob.

(birdno plane) = .33

bird and

plane are paired

A quick test for contingency

a·d > c·b

then positive

a·d = c·b

zero contingency

a·d < c·b

then negative


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

You can have a positive contingency even when

pairing is the least frequent possibility

Example: can you learn that

and “cat” are associated?

hear

“cat” no “cat”

100 900 1,000

200 9,800 10,000

see

no

prob (“cat” ) = .10

prob (“cat”no ) = .02

positive contingency


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Contingency and Conditioning

shock no shock

shock no shock

perfect positive

contingency

perfect negative

contingency

tone

no tone

tone

no tone

0

4

4

0

3

0

4

0

tone leads to fear

Standard Experiment

tone

tone

tone

tone

time

shock

shock

shock

shock

Unpaired Experiment

tone becomes a

conditioned inhibitor

of fear


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Random Pairing

shock no shock

shock no shock

zero

contingency

conditioning

occurs

tone

no tone

tone

no tone

2

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

T

T

T

T

S

S

S

S

No conditioning occurs even though tone and shock

are occasionally paired

Partial positive contingency

Conclude: contingency, not contiguity matters


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

shock no shock

tone

no tone

20

20

20

20

Random Pairing Experiment

zero

contingency

no conditioning

occurs

Shows that there must be some contingency

between CS and US to get conditioning.

Contiguity is not enough.


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Fear vs Anxiety

  • if tone predicts shock then animal becomes

  • afraid after tone

  • (like a phobia)

  • if tone does not predict shock (random pairing)

  • animal ignores the tone and experiences

  • something like anxiety (unfocused fear)


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Blocking Effect

phase 1tone shock

16 times

phase 2tone+light shock

8 times

phase 3light alone

NO FEAR IS ELICITED!

Shows that contingency alone doesn’t produce

conditioning

Get conditioning

when

(a) CS predicts US

AND

(b) CS tells something we didn’t

already know


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Modern view of conditioning

and the blocking effect

(1) Form association between stimuli only if they

are actively processed or “rehearsed” together.

(2) Stimuli are processed only if they are

unexpected

(3) As conditioning proceeds both the CS and US

become less surprising. So they are processed less

and, hence, less additional learning occurs.


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

  • Explaining the Blocking Effect

  • trial 1 CS US

  • tone shock

  • CS is surprising

  • US is surprising

  • Process CS and US

  • Create association between CS & US

  • trial 2 tone stock

  • trial 3

  • trial 8

  • CSmemory of  fearUS

  • toneshockshock

  • Shock is not surprising any more so no

  • additional strengthening of association occurs


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

no more

learning

rapid

learning

Strength of

CS-US Association

       

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


Innate knowledge what an organism is born with experience leads to changes in knowledge

Phase 2

trial 9

CS1 CS2memory

tone + lightof shock fear

The light is surprising, so it is processed. But the

tone completely predicts the shock

US

shock

So the US shock is not processed, so no

association is formed between light and shock.

Explains blocking effect

General Conclusion

Stimuli are associated when they provide

information that the organism doesn’t already

know.