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Big Ideas & Main Idea. CIVIL WAR & LEADERSHIP “The secession of Southern states caused the North and the South to take up arms.”. Essential Questions. 1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war? 2) How has the nation’s identity been forged in part by the Civil War?

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big ideas main idea
Big Ideas & Main Idea
  • “The secession of Southern states caused the North and the South to take up arms.”
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • 1) What makes a civil war different from a foreign war?
  • 2) How has the nation’s identity been forged in part by the Civil War?
  • 3) How might a civil war affect U.S. economy and society?
initial issues for both leaders
Initial Issues for Both Leaders
  • Lincoln
    • Secession before Oath of Office
    • Worst of times and the chance for greatness
  • Jefferson Davis
    • Wanted to permanently establish Confederacy
    • Needed to bring Upper South into the War
fort sumter
Fort Sumter
  • Confederate soldiers start taking Federal courthouses, post offices, and forts in South
  • WHY? Willie Sutton quote
  • Fort Sumter (island at mouth of Charleston Harbor) only 1 of 2 Union forts remaining in Deep South
  • Important? (See map & slide)
  • Confederacy demands that Union soldiers inside surrender
  • Union soldiers short on supplies and ammunition
  • Major Anderson’s plea to Lincoln for food and support
lincoln s dilemma
Lincoln’s Dilemma
  • Dilemma? His possible choices?
  • Option #1: Shoot way into Charlestown Harbor
    • Risk of this action?
  • Option #2: Surrender of fort
    • Risk of this action?
lincoln s genius
Lincoln’s Genius
  • Message to Davis that he wants to send in “food for hungry men”
  • Why genius?
  • Puts ball back in Davis’ court
  • Davis’ options?
war begins
War Begins!
  • Davis chooses war
  • 4/12/1861 South bombards Fort Sumter
  • No casualties, EXCEPT during 50 gun salute
  • Lincoln calls for 75K volunteers-they pour into enlistment offices
    • 90-day term
southern states take sides
Southern States Take Sides
  • Upper South secedes after Lincoln’s call (VA, AK, TN, NC)
    • Why? Would they fight Lower South?
  • Creation of West Virginia
  • 4 Remaining Slave States
    • Delaware (easy Union victory)
    • Maryland (Lincoln suspend writ of habeas corpus)
    • Missouri (guerilla bands)
    • Kentucky (would have debilitating loss for South)
justification for both sides
Justification for Both Sides
  • South
    • Felt that secession was justified by democracy
    • Only slave owners with stake, but poor whites fought, WHY?
    • “Yankee Aggression”
    • Like colonists in 1776?
  • North
    • Preserve Union at all costs
    • “I would save the Union….” (read full quote)
    • Free soiler mentality
    • Act of treason?
lincoln his cabinet his plan
Lincoln, his Cabinet, his Plan
  • Lincoln
    • Little military and political experience, but learns quick
    • Great writer-How is this important?
  • Cabinet
    • “Team of Rivals” (e.g., Seward and Chase)
    • Wise choice by Lincoln?
  • War Plan (the “Anaconda Plan” by Lincoln and Scott)
    • Naval blockade, why?
    • Take Mississippi River, why?
    • Take Richmond, why?
north s advantages and disadvantages
North’s Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Population (immigration)-How important?
    • Industry
    • Navy and Railroads
    • Lincoln
  • Disadvantages
    • Textile business would suffer-Explain!
    • Foreign intervention-Why would England get involved?
    • Loss of Southern markets
jefferson davis and strategy
Jefferson Davis and Strategy
  • Jefferson Davis
    • Military-West Point and war hero
    • Political-Secretary of War and Senator
    • Perfect choice?-not really
  • The South’s Strategy
    • Just don’t lose-What does this mean?
    • Fight defensive war and attack at right times
    • Hope for loss of public support in North
    • Like colonists in 1776? War of 1812?
      • Fight for George Washington
south s advantages and disadvantages
South’s Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Home field-How is this an advantage?
    • Defend homes, family and way of life
    • Military leaders-Why important?
    • Weapons industry
    • Honor-based society with military tradition (cavalry)
  • Disadvantages
    • Lack of railroads-Why important?
    • Weak form of government-Why did they go with it even with its history of failure?
stalemate in the eastern theater
Stalemate in the Eastern Theater
  • Bull Run (N) or Manassas (S)
  • Seven Days Battle
  • 2nd Bull Run
  • Antietam (N) or Sharpsburg (S)
  • Fredericksburg
battle of bull run
Battle of Bull Run
  • Irwin McDowell to lead 35K new recruits
  • Lincoln orders attack of 20K Confederates at Manassas
    • July ,1861
    • 35 miles SW of D.C.
  • People watch as they picnic
  • Both sides inexperienced troops
  • “Stonewall” Jackson wins day with counterattack
  • Union retreat through picnics (mass chaos)
  • 1st victory to the Confederacy
      • Casualties (wounded and dead) were relatively light
        • 2K for S and 1.6K for N
battle of bull run1
Battle of Bull Run
  • Loss causes Lincoln to:
    • Call on 1 million volunteers
    • Gen. George McClellan to lead army
lessons of bull run
Lessons of Bull Run
  • What did the North realize by losing the 1st battle of the war?
  • Why did some in the South think the war was over after battle?
  • What could Confederate soldiers have done after victory?
mcclellan the reluctant warrior
McClellan: The Reluctant Warrior
  • Makes West Virginia possible
    • Considered Union’s 1st war hero
  • Overly cautious; over-preparing for invasion of Va
    • This tried Lincoln’s patience; QUOTE
  • His major flaw-felt it was more important to capture Richmond than to destroy the Confederate army
  • Lincoln knew this, but he was unable to convince McClellan to think “outside the box”
seven days battle may 1862
Seven Days Battle (May, 1862)
  • McClellan finally decides to attack Richmond from SE
  • Waterways (York and James) cleared
  • 130K troops land and march up Yorktown Peninsula
  • Gen. Joseph Johnston then Gen. Robert E. Lee to lead Army of Northern Virginia
  • Lee is McClellan’s foil and has great supporting cast
  • Lee pushes McClellan back down (30K casualities)
  • Question on Lee and slavery
  • Lincoln replaces McClellan with John Pope
second bull run august 1862
Second Bull Run (August, 1862)
  • Lee faces off against Pope
  • Lee is outnumbered but through superior commanding and better soldiers, South pushes Pope back to Washington, D.C.
  • Lincoln fires Pope and brings McClellan back
antietam september 17 1862
Antietam (September 17, 1862)
  • Lincoln knows only way for Union to lose war and Lee knows too and decides to counterattack
  • Lee spilts forces and crosses into Union (MD)
  • Lucky find by Union soldier
  • 9/17/1862, near small creek to funnel Lee’s troops
  • Bloodiest single day battle in U.S. history (26K causalities)
  • Lee pushed back but McClellan again too cautious and does not pursue back to VA
  • Lincoln fires McClellan afterward (Burnside); Why?
  • He runs as Dem. in 1864 Election
fredericksburg december 1862
Fredericksburg (December, 1862)
  • Burnside vs. Lee
    • Lee dug in behind stone wall on heights of Rappahannock River with ½ mile open ground separating the two armies
    • Burnside too aggressive; full frontal assault
    • What happens? Remind you of another battle?
    • One of the worst losses of Union and one of Lee’s greatest victories
      • Lee seen as immortal and unbeatable by Union and his own men
battle of chancellorsville
Battle of Chancellorsville
  • Hooker replaces Burnside
  • South defeats North at this Virginia town
    • North think Lee is undefeatable
  • North’s consolation-Stonewall Jackson shot by his men; later dies
  • “He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right.”
  • Lee then invades North to get supplies and try to win on Northern soil (dishearten public support for the war)-sets up Battle of Gettysburg
union victories in the western theater
Union Victories in the Western Theater
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • West Point and Mexican War veteran
  • “Take it to the South”- Why this strategy?
  • Armored gunboats to take 2 Confed. forts on 2 Tenn. rivers
    • Forts Henry (Tenn. River) and Donelson (Cumberland River)
battle of shiloh
Battle of Shiloh
  • “Blankets and coffee” battle
  • Why did Confed. use surprise attack?
  • Grant pushes Confed. back on 2nd day
  • Draw but opened way to Mississippi River for Union
  • Huge causalities and people call for his job; Lincoln says no because “he fights.”
new orleans
New Orleans
  • David Farragut
  • Why important?
  • Most population and biggest port
  • Vicksburg still the key to the Anaconda Plan
revolutions in warfare
Revolutions in Warfare
  • How does technology affect warfare? Reverse?
  • Rifle: more accurate & greater rate of fire than musket
  • Minie Ball: soft lead bullet that is more deadly; WHY?
  • Early hand grenades & mines
  • Poor medical treatment
ironclads monitor vs merrimack
Ironclads: Monitor vs. Merrimack
  • What are they?
  • Used to win at Forts Henry and Donelson
  • Strengths?
  • Draw but Union victory b/c South can not break Union blockade
international diplomacy
International Diplomacy
  • Cotton did not stay “king”
    • Surplus, other sources and wheat trade with Union
  • Lincoln knows of Europe’s hatred of slavery
  • South had “belligerent status” with Europe
  • The Trent Affair
    • San Jacinto and Trent
    • Robert Mason and James Slidell
    • Why do you think they were going to England?
    • Lincoln releases two men and avoids possible war, Why important?
paying for the war
Paying for the War
  • Both sides used war bonds and taxes
  • Both sides printed money and suffered from inflation
  • Labor
    • North (increased industry and labor shortage)
    • South (slave labor)
from slaves to contraband
From Slaves to Contraband
  • Lincoln’s main goal-reunite the Union
  • Lincoln had to consider
    • Border states, the North, Democratic party
  • Pressure by abolitionists
  • Radical Republicans in Congress
    • 1861 Confiscation Act
    • 1862 “contraband of war”
  • Lincoln’s colonization plan and black reaction
from contraband to free people
From Contraband to Free People
  • Lincoln did not want to alienate Border States
  • Changes his mind to get support from Europe
  • January 1, 1863, Emancipation Proclamation
    • Freed slaves only in areas of rebellion (not Border States)
    • So, did it free any slaves in South?
    • What did the South realize?
  • Reactions to Proclamation
african american soldiers
African-American Soldiers
  • Eman. Procl. -blacks to join Union army
    • 54th Massachusetts
  • 1% of North’s pop. and 10% Union army
  • What do these numbers tell you?
  • Discrimination-divisions, less pay, no officers
  • Death rates higher-NO POWs!
conscription and impressment
Conscription and Impressment
  • Conscription (1862)- military draft
    • 18 to 35, then 17 to 50
    • “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” Meaning?
  • Impressment
    • Confiscate items and pay below market prices
    • Would do the same for slaves
poor economy
Poor Economy
  • Blockade
  • Shortages (shoes, 1863 Bread Riots)
  • Inflation
  • Desertion
  • Slaves escape to the North
the government and economy
The Government and Economy
  • Labor problems b/c wages did not keep pace with inflation
  • Government Programs
    • Homestead Act of 1862
    • Pacific Railway Act of 1862
    • Legal Tender Act of 1862
    • National Banking Act of 1863
    • Internal Revenue Act
    • Protection tariffs to protect domestic industry
women during wartime
Women during Wartime
  • Replaced men on farms and in industry
  • Clerks and secretaries
  • Nurses
    • Elizabeth Blackwell
    • Clara Barton
politics and dissent
Politics and Dissent
  • Democrats in Congress-status quo antebellum
  • Copperheads
  • Republicans (Moderates and Radicals)
  • Lincoln
    • Suspended writ of habeas corpus
    • Imposed martial law
    • Ignored unfavorable USSC decisions
the draft and riots
The Draft and Riots
  • The Draft
    • Less volunteers, so 1863 Conscription
    • “$300 Man”
  • The Draft Riots
    • NYC in 1863; burned for 4 days; 100+ killed
    • Irish-Catholics formed majority of rioters
    • Attacked blacks and rich
    • Upset at having to fight a war to free blacks
    • Gettysburg troops
  • July 4, 1863 Union win under Gen. Grant
  • Important b/c cut Confed. in ½
  • Besieged the city and starved them out
  • It was last spot on Mississippi River in which Confederates could send troops and supplies from west to east where most fighting occurred
  • Lincoln makes Grant supreme commander of Union army
gettysburg july 1 3 1863
Gettysburg (July 1-3 1863)
  • Lee know he must win major battle in North
  • Lee and Meade meet at this PA town
  • Day 1: Confederates take town and Union takes heights
  • Day 2: Colonel Joshua Chamberlain’s charge
  • Day 3: General Pickett’s Charge
  • Lee then retreats and Meade does not follow
      • 30% casualties on both sides (Union 23K, Confederacy 28K)
      • Why did the battle hurt the South more?
  • Lee never again able to invade North
  • Turning point of the war
the gettysburg address
The Gettysburg Address
  • 2 minute speech
  • November 1863
  • Dedication ceremony
  • Brought Union together to end immorality of slavery
  • Unified the North
the confederacy wears down
The Confederacy Wears Down
  • Two victories cost South badly
  • Supplies and public support very low
  • Weak gov’t-no central authority
  • Lincoln appoints Grant head of army
  • Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman his right hand man
    • Belief in TOTAL WAR
grant and lee in virginia
Grant and Lee in Virginia
  • Grant chases Lee throughout area of Virginia, the “Wilderness” near Fredericksburg-tough fighting
  • Grant willing to sacrifice lots of men & knew that Lee could not
  • Grant losses 60K men to Lee’s 32K
  • Loss of public support in North; Lincoln’s 1864 campaign suffers
sherman s march to the sea
Sherman’s March to the Sea
  • 1864, public support in North falling due to human losses and indecisive battles
  • Lincoln/Johnson vs. McClellan
  • Looks like Lincoln might lose, but tide is turned with news of Sherman’s march to Atlanta (waging total war)
  • Lincoln wins; 212 to 21; 55% of popular vote
    • Sherman reaches Atlanta (September 2, 1864) and marches North taking Savannah (December 1864) and then heads towards Grant
the surrender at appomattox
The Surrender at Appomattox
  • Grant and Sherman closing in on Lee
  • Davis abandons Richmond and burns city so Union could not take it (900 buildings &100s homes)
  • April 9, 1865-Lee met Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in VA to surrender
  • Grant allowed Confed. soldiers just to go home without charging them; 4 years
results of the war
Results of the War
  • Soldier Dead: 360K Union & 260K Confederate
  • Soldiers Injured: 275K Union & 225K Confederate (amputees)
  • $3.3 billion combined spending (budget!)
  • Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 at the Ford’s Theatre during Our American Cousin
  • Booth escapes to Virginia; large manhunt; nation grieves
  • He was shot dead 12 days later
  • Lincoln dies; Andrew Johnson president